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Meta-analysis
Comparison of safety and efficacy between therapeutic or intermediate versus prophylactic anticoagulation for thrombosis in COVID-19 patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Hyeon-Jeong Lee, Hye Jin Jang, Won-Il Choi, Joonsung Joh, Junghyun Kim, Jungeun Park, Miyoung Choi
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(4):516-516.   Published online November 28, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.01424.e1
Corrects: Acute Crit Care 2023;38(2):160
  • 72 View
  • 6 Download
PDF
Infection
A successful application of adult polymyxin B-immobilized fiber column hemoperfusion to a neonate with septic shock
Young A Kim, Hyungtae Kim, Yu-Mi Kim, Su Eun Park
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(4):515-515.   Published online November 3, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2017.00528.e1
Corrects: Acute Crit Care 2019;34(4):284
  • 186 View
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Image in Critical Care
Infection
Right-sided infective endocarditis of a native valve with multiple embolus lesions
Miyeon Kim, Ki Yung Boo, Jeong Rae Yoo
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(4):513-514.   Published online November 24, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.01228
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PDFSupplementary Material
Case Report
Neurology
Myoclonic status epilepticus after severe hyperthermia in a patient with coronavirus disease 2019
Katherine A Hill, John J Peters, Sara M Schaefer
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(4):509-512.   Published online March 24, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2021.01452
  • 1,966 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Myoclonic status epilepticus (MSE) is a sign of severe neurologic injury in cardiac arrest patients. To our knowledge, MSE has not been described as a result of prolonged hyperpyrexia. A 56-yearold man with coronavirus disease 2019 presented with acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic/hypovolemic shock, and presumed community-acquired pneumonia. Five days after presentation, he developed a sustained fever of 42.1°C that did not respond to acetaminophen or ice water gastric lavage. After several hours, he was placed on surface cooling. Three hours after fever resolution, new multifocal myoclonus was noted in the patient’s arms and trunk. Electroencephalography showed midline spikes consistent with MSE, which resolved with 40 mg/kg of levetiracetam. This case demonstrates that severe hyperthermia can cause cortical injury significant enough to trigger MSE and should be treated emergently using the most aggressive measures available. Providers should have a low threshold for electroencephalography in intubated patients with a recent history of hyperpyrexia.
Editorial
CPR/Resuscitation
Effect of combined reservoir mask oxygenation and high-flow nasal cannula in COVID-19 pneumonia
Dowan Kim
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(4):507-508.   Published online November 24, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.01480
  • 105 View
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Original Articles
Pediatrics
Eleven years of experience in operating a pediatric rapid response system at a children’s hospital in South Korea
Yong Hyuk Jeon, Bongjin Lee, You Sun Kim, Won Jin Jang, June Dong Park
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(4):498-506.   Published online November 29, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.01354
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
Various rapid response systems have been developed to detect clinical deterioration in patients. Few studies have evaluated single-parameter systems in children compared to scoring systems. Therefore, in this study we evaluated a single-parameter system called the acute response system (ARS).
Methods
This retrospective study was performed at a tertiary children’s hospital. Patients under 18 years old admitted from January 2012 to August 2023 were enrolled. ARS parameters such as systolic blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, and whether the ARS was activated were collected. We divided patients into two groups according to activation status and then compared the occurrence of critical events (cardiopulmonary resuscitation or unexpected intensive care unit admission). We evaluated the ability of ARS to predict critical events and calculated compliance. We also analyzed the correlation between each parameter that activates ARS and critical events.
Results
The critical events prediction performance of ARS has a specificity of 98.5%, a sensitivity of 24.0%, a negative predictive value of 99.6%, and a positive predictive value of 8.1%. The compliance rate was 15.6%. Statistically significant increases in the risk of critical events were observed for all abnormal criteria except low heart rate. There was no significant difference in the incidence of critical events.
Conclusions
ARS, a single parameter system, had good specificity and negative predictive value for predicting critical events; however, sensitivity and positive predictive value were not good, and medical staff compliance was poor.
Pediatrics
Implementation and effectiveness of a delirium care protocol in Thai critically ill children
Chanapai Chaiyakulsil, Thananya Thadahirunchot
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(4):488-497.   Published online November 28, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.00045
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Delirium in critically ill children can result in long-term morbidity. Our main objectives were to evaluate the effectiveness of a new protocol on the reduction, prevalence, and duration of delirium and to identify associated risk factors.
Methods
The effectiveness of the protocol was evaluated by a chart review in all critically ill children aged 1 month to 15 years during the study period. A Cornell Assessment of Pediatric Delirium score ≥9 was considered positive for delirium. Data on delirium prevalence and duration from the pre-implementation and post-implementation phases were compared. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify the risk factors of delirium.
Results
A total of 120 children was analyzed (58 children in the pre-implementation group and 62 children in the post-implementation group). Fifty children (41.7%) screened positive for delirium. Age less than 2 years, delayed development, use of mechanical ventilation, and pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) stay >7 days were significantly associated with delirium. The proportion of children screened positive was not significantly different after the implementation (before, 39.7% vs. after, 43.5%; P=0.713). Subgroup analyses revealed a significant reduction in the duration of delirium in children with admission diagnosis of cardiovascular problems and after cardiothoracic surgery.
Conclusions
The newly implemented protocol was able to reduce the duration of delirium in children with admission diagnosis of cardiovascular problems and after cardiothoracic surgery. More studies should be conducted to reduce delirium to prevent long-term morbidity after PICU discharge.
Nursing
The effects of environmental interventions for delirium in critically ill surgical patients
Hak-Jae Lee, Yoon-Joong Jung, Nak-Joon Choi, Suk-Kyung Hong
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(4):479-487.   Published online November 28, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.00990
  • 87 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Delirium occurs at high rates among patients in intensive care units and increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of environmental interventions on delirium.
Methods
This prospective cohort study enrolled 192 patients admitted to the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) during the pre-intervention (June 2013 to October 2013) and post-intervention (June 2014 to October 2014) periods. Environmental interventions involved a cognitive assessment, an orientation, and a comfortable environment including proper sleep conditions. The primary outcomes were the prevalence, duration, and onset of delirium.
Results
There were no statistically significant differences in incidence rate, time of delirium onset, general characteristics, and mortality between the pre-intervention and post-intervention groups. The durations of delirium were 14.4±19.1 and 7.7±7.3 days in the pre-intervention and post-intervention groups, respectively, a significant reduction (P=0.027). The lengths of SICU stay were 20.0±22.9 and 12.6±8.7 days for the pre-intervention and post-intervention groups, respectively, also a significant reduction (P=0.030).
Conclusions
The implementation of an environmental intervention program reduced the duration of delirium and length of stay in the SICU for critically ill surgical patients.
Nursing
Palliative care knowledge and attitudes toward end-of-life care among intensive care unit nurses in Jordan
Khaldoun Mohammad Hamdan, Ahmad M. Al-Bashaireh, Mohammad Al-Dalahmeh, Ahmad Rajeh Saifan, Maha Alkaid Albqoor, Abeer M. Shaheen
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(4):469-478.   Published online November 28, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.00430
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
There is a growing need for palliative care globally due to the rapid aging of the population and improvement in cancer survival rates. Adequate knowledge and a positive attitude are vital for palliative care nurses. The study’s purpose was to examine nurses’ knowledge and attitudes toward palliative care.
Methods
A cross-sectional design with convenience sampling was used. The study included 182 intensive care unit (ICU) nurses from Jordanian hospitals in all sectors. Self-administered questionnaires were used to assess nurses' knowledge and attitudes toward palliative care. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, and the Kruskal-Wallis H test were used to analyze the data.
Results
We measured nurses’ knowledge using the Palliative Care Quiz for Nursing, and we measured nurses' attitudes using the Frommelt Attitude Toward Care of the Dying scale. The mean total knowledge and attitude scores were 8.88 (standard deviation [SD], 2.52) and 103.14 (SD, 12.31), respectively. The lowest level of knowledge was in psychosocial and spiritual care (mean, 0.51±0.70). The percentage of nurses with unfavorable attitudes was 53.3%. Significant differences in knowledge and attitude levels were observed according to educational level, experience, and hospital type.
Conclusions
ICU nurses have insufficient knowledge and inappropriate attitudes toward palliative care. Knowledge of psychological and spiritual aspects of palliative care was particularly lacking as were appropriate attitudes towards communication with dying patients. Improving knowledge and attitudes toward palliative care in nursing schools and hospitals would help overcome this problem.
Nursing
Effect of fourth hourly oropharyngeal suctioning on ventilator-associated events in patients requiring mechanical ventilation in intensive care units of a tertiary care center in South India: a randomized controlled trial
Khanjana Borah, Lakshmi Ramamoorthy, Muthapillai Senthilnathan, Rajeswari Murugesan, Hmar Thiak Lalthanthuami, Rani Subramaniyan
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(4):460-468.   Published online November 24, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.01501
  • 129 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a necessary life-saving measure for critically ill patients. Ventilator-associated events (VAEs) are potentially avoidable complications associated with MV that can double the rate of death. Oral care and oropharyngeal suctioning, although neglected procedures, play a vital role in the prevention of VAE.
Methods
A randomized controlled trial was conducted in the intensive care units to compare the effect of fourth hourly oropharyngeal suctioning with the standard oral care protocol on VAE among patients on MV. One hundred twenty mechanically ventilated patients who were freshly intubated and expected to be on ventilator support for the next 72 hours were randomly allocated to the control or intervention groups. The intervention was fourth hourly oropharyngeal suctioning along with the standard oral care procedure. The control group received standard oral care (i.e., thrice a day) and on-demand oral suctioning. On the 3rd and 7th days following the intervention, endotracheal aspirates were sent to rule out ventilator-associated pneumonia.
Results
Both groups were homogenous at baseline with respect to their clinical characteristics. The intervention group had fewer VAEs (56.7%) than the control group (78.3%) which was significant at P<0.01. A significant reduction in the status of “positive culture” on ET aspirate also been observed following the 3rd day of the intervention (P<0.001).
Conclusions
One of the most basic preventive strategies is providing oral care. Oropharyngeal suctioning is also an important component of oral care that prevents microaspiration. Hence, fourth-hourly oropharyngeal suctioning with standard oral care significantly reduces the incidence of VAE.
Surgery
Biomarkers to predict mortality in patients with Fournier’s gangrene admitted to the intensive care unit after surgery in South Korea
In Sik Shin, Seong Chan Gong, Sanghyun An, Kwangmin Kim
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(4):452-459.   Published online November 21, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.00766
  • 157 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
The use of biomarkers to predict patient outcomes may be crucial for patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) following surgery because biomarkers guide clinicians in tailoring treatment plans accordingly. Therefore, we aimed to identify potential biomarkers to predict the prognosis of patients with Fournier’s gangrene (FG) admitted to the ICU after surgery.
Methods
We enrolled patients with FG admitted to our Hospital between January 2013 and December 2022. We retrospectively analyzed patient characteristics, factors related to management, scores known to be associated with the prognosis of FG, and laboratory data.
Results
The study population included 28 survivors and 13 nonsurvivors. The initial serum lactate level taken in the emergency department; white blood cell, neutrophil, and platelet counts; delta neutrophil index and international normalized ratio; albumin, glucose, HCO3, and postoperative lactate levels; and the laboratory risk indicator for necrotizing fasciitis differed between survivors and nonsurvivors. Postoperative lactate and initial albumin levels were independent predictors of mortality in patients with FG. In the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the postoperative lactate level was the best indicator of mortality (area under the curve, 0.877; 95% confidence interval, 0.711–1.000). The optimal cutoff postoperative lactate level for predicting mortality was 3.0 mmol/L (sensitivity, 80.0%; specificity, 95.0%).
Conclusions
Postoperative lactate and initial albumin levels could be potential predictors of mortality in patients with FG admitted to the ICU after surgery, and the optimal cutoff postoperative lactate and initial albumin levels to predict mortality were 3.0 mmol/L and 3.05 g/dl, respectively. Large-scale multicenter prospective studies are required to confirm our results.
Pulmonary
Risk factors for mortality in intensive care unit patients with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia pneumonia in South Korea
Yong Hoon Lee, Jaehee Lee, Byunghyuk Yu, Won Kee Lee, Sun Ha Choi, Ji Eun Park, Hyewon Seo, Seung Soo Yoo, Shin Yup Lee, Seung-Ick Cha, Chang Ho Kim, Jae Yong Park
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(4):442-451.   Published online November 21, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.00682
  • 339 View
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has been increasingly recognized as an opportunistic pathogen associated with high morbidity and mortality. Data on the prognostic factors associated with S. maltophilia pneumonia in patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) are lacking.
Methods
We conducted a retrospective analysis of data from 117 patients with S. maltophilia pneumonia admitted to the ICUs of two tertiary referral hospitals in South Korea between January 2011 and December 2022. To assess risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality, multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed.
Results
The median age of the study population was 71 years. Ventilator-associated pneumonia was 76.1% of cases, and the median length of ICU stay before the first isolation of S. maltophilia was 15 days. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 82.1%, and factors independently associated with mortality were age (odds ratio [OR], 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00–1.09; P=0.046), Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (OR, 1.21; 95%; CI, 1.02–1.43; P=0.025), corticosteroid use (OR, 4.19; 95% CI, 1.26–13.91; P=0.019), and polymicrobial infection (OR, 95% CI 0.07–0.69). However, the impact of appropriate antibiotic therapy on mortality was insignificant. In a subgroup of patients who received appropriate antibiotic therapy (n=58), antibiotic treatment modality-related variables, including combination or empirical therapy, also showed no significant association with survival.
Conclusions
Patients with S. maltophilia pneumonia in ICU have high mortality rates. Older age, higher SOFA score, and corticosteroid use were independently associated with increased in-hospital mortality, whereas polymicrobial infection was associated with lower mortality. The effect of appropriate antibiotic therapy on prognosis was insignificant.
Pulmonary
Combining reservoir mask oxygenation with high-flow nasal cannula in the treatment of hypoxemic respiratory failure among patients with COVID-19 pneumonia: a retrospective cohort study
Ivan Gur, Ronen Zalts, Yaniv Dotan, Khitam Hussain, Ami Neuberger, Eyal Fuchs
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(4):435-441.   Published online November 23, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.00451
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
Concerns regarding positive-pressure-ventilation for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hypoxemia led the search for alternative oxygenation techniques. This study aimed to assess one such method, dual oxygenation, i.e., the addition of a reservoir mask (RM) on top of a high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC).
Methods
In this retrospective cohort study, the records of all patients hospitalized with COVID-19 during 2020–2022 were reviewed. Patients over the age of 18 years with hypoxemia necessitating HFNC were included. Exclusion criteria were positive-pressure-ventilation for any indication other than hypoxemic respiratory failure, transfer to another facility while still on HFNC and “do-not-intubate/resuscitate” orders. The primary outcome was mortality within 30 days from the first application of HFNC. Secondary outcomes were intubation and admission to the intensive care unit.
Results
Of 659 patients included in the final analysis, 316 were treated with dual oxygenation and 343 with HFNC alone. Propensity for treatment was estimated based on background diagnoses, laboratories and vital signs upon admission, gender and glucocorticoid dose. Inverse probability of treatment weighted regression including age, body mass index, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and respiratory rate oxygenation index showed treatment with dual oxygenation to be associated with lower 30-day mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.615; 95% confidence interval, 0.469–0.809). Differences in the secondary outcomes did not reach statistical significance.
Conclusions
Our study suggests that the addition of RM on top of HFNC may be associated with decreased mortality in patients with severe COVID-19 hypoxemia.
Infection
Healthcare-associated infections in critical COVID-19 patients in Tunis: epidemiology, risk factors, and outcomes
Ahlem Trifi, Selim Sellaouti, Asma Mehdi, Lynda Messaoud, Eya Seghir, Badis Tlili, Sami Abdellatif
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(4):425-434.   Published online November 28, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.00773
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
healthBackground: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic disrupted adherences to healthcare-associated infection (HAI) prevention protocols. Herein, we studied the characteristics of all HAIs occurring in critically ill COVID-19 patients.
Methods
A retrospective, single-center cohort of critical COVID-19 patients during 2021. Microbiological samples were collected if HAI was suspected. We analyzed all factors that could potentially induce HAI, using septic shock and mortality as endpoints.
Results
Sixty-four among 161 included patients (39.7%) presented a total of 117 HAIs with an incidence density of 69.2 per 1,000 hospitalization days. Compared to the prior COVID-19 period (2013–2019), the identification of HAI increased in 2021. HAIs were classified into ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP; n=38), bloodstream infection (n=32), urinary tract infection (n=24), catheter-related infection (n=12), and fungal infection (n=11). All HAIs occurred significantly earlier in the post–COVID-19 period (VAP: 6 vs. 10 days, P=0.045, in 2017 and 2021). Acinetobacter baumannii (39.5%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (27%) were the most commonly isolated pathogens that exhibited a multidrug-resistant (MDR) profile, observed in 89% and 64.5%, respectively. The HAI factors were laboratory abnormalities (odds ratio [OR], 6.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.3–26.0), cumulative steroid dose (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.3–4.0), and invasive procedures (OR, 20.7; 95% CI, 5.3–64.0). HAI was an independent factor of mortality (OR, 8.5; P=0.004).
Conclusions
During the COVID-19 era, the incidence of HAIs increased and MDR isolates remained frequent. A severe biological inflammatory syndrome, invasive devices, and elevated cumulative steroid dosages were related to HAIs. HAI was a significant death factor.
Review Article
Surgery
Early detection and assessment of intensive care unit-acquired weakness: a comprehensive review
Hanan Elkalawy, Pavan Sekhar, Wael Abosena
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(4):409-424.   Published online November 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.00703
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICU-AW) is a serious complication in critically ill patients. Therefore, timely and accurate diagnosis and monitoring of ICU-AW are crucial for effectively preventing its associated morbidity and mortality. This article provides a comprehensive review of ICU-AW, focusing on the different methods used for its diagnosis and monitoring. Additionally, it highlights the role of bedside ultrasound in muscle assessment and early detection of ICU-AW. Furthermore, the article explores potential strategies for preventing ICU-AW. Healthcare providers who manage critically ill patients utilize diagnostic approaches such as physical exams, imaging, and assessment tools to identify ICU-AW. However, each method has its own limitations. The diagnosis of ICU-AW needs improvement due to the lack of a consensus on the appropriate approach for its detection. Nevertheless, bedside ultrasound has proven to be the most reliable and cost-effective tool for muscle assessment in the ICU. Combining the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score assessment, and ultrasound can be a convenient approach for the early detection of ICU-AW. This approach can facilitate timely intervention and prevent catastrophic consequences. However, further studies are needed to strengthen the evidence.

ACC : Acute and Critical Care