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Pediatrics
Multicenter validation of a deep-learning-based pediatric early-warning system for prediction of deterioration events
Yunseob Shin, Kyung-Jae Cho, Yeha Lee, Yu Hyeon Choi, Jae Hwa Jung, Soo Yeon Kim, Yeo Hyang Kim, Young A Kim, Joongbum Cho, Seong Jong Park, Won Kyoung Jhang
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(4):654-666.   Published online October 26, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00976
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
Early recognition of deterioration events is crucial to improve clinical outcomes. For this purpose, we developed a deep-learning-based pediatric early-warning system (pDEWS) and aimed to validate its clinical performance. Methods: This is a retrospective multicenter cohort study including five tertiary-care academic children’s hospitals. All pediatric patients younger than 19 years admitted to the general ward from January 2019 to December 2019 were included. Using patient electronic medical records, we evaluated the clinical performance of the pDEWS for identifying deterioration events defined as in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) and unexpected general ward-to-pediatric intensive care unit transfer (UIT) within 24 hours before event occurrence. We also compared pDEWS performance to those of the modified pediatric early-warning score (PEWS) and prediction models using logistic regression (LR) and random forest (RF). Results: The study population consisted of 28,758 patients with 34 cases of IHCA and 291 cases of UIT. pDEWS showed better performance for predicting deterioration events with a larger area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, fewer false alarms, a lower mean alarm count per day, and a smaller number of cases needed to examine than the modified PEWS, LR, or RF models regardless of site, event occurrence time, age group, or sex. Conclusions: The pDEWS outperformed modified PEWS, LR, and RF models for early and accurate prediction of deterioration events regardless of clinical situation. This study demonstrated the potential of pDEWS as an efficient screening tool for efferent operation of rapid response teams.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Volumetric regional MRI and neuropsychological predictors of motor task variability in cognitively unimpaired, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and probable Alzheimer's disease older adults
    Michael Malek-Ahmadi, Kevin Duff, Kewei Chen, Yi Su, Jace B. King, Vincent Koppelmans, Sydney Y. Schaefer
    Experimental Gerontology.2023; 173: 112087.     CrossRef
  • An advanced pediatric early warning system: a reliable sentinel, not annoying extra work
    Young Joo Han
    Acute and Critical Care.2022; 37(4): 667.     CrossRef
Pediatrics
Characteristics and timing of mortality in children dying in pediatric intensive care: a 5-year experience
Edin Botan, Emrah Gün, Emine Kübra Şden, Cansu Yöndem, Anar Gurbanov, Burak Balaban, Fevzi Kahveci, Hasan Özen, Hacer Uçmak, Ali Genco Gençay, Tanil Kendirli
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(4):644-653.   Published online November 11, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00395
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Pediatric intensive care units (PICUs), where children with critical illnesses are treated, require considerable manpower and technological infrastructure in order to keep children alive and free from sequelae. Methods: In this retrospective comparative cohort study, hospital records of patients aged 1 month to 18 years who died in the study PICU between January 2015 and December 2019 were reviewed. Results: A total of 2,781 critically ill children were admitted to the PICU. The mean±standard deviation age of 254 nonsurvivors was 64.34±69.48 months. The mean PICU length of stay was 17 days (range, 1–205 days), with 40 children dying early (<1 day of PICU admission). The majority of nonsurvivors (83.9%) had comorbid illnesses. Children with early mortality were more likely to have neurological findings (62.5%), hypotension (82.5%), oliguria (47.5%), acidosis (92.5%), coagulopathy (30.0%), and cardiac arrest (45.0%) and less likely to have terminal illnesses (52.5%) and chronic illnesses (75.6%). Children who died early had a higher mean age (81.8 months) and Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM) III score (37). In children who died early, the first three signs during ICU admission were hypoglycemia in 68.5%, neurological symptoms in 43.5%, and acidosis in 78.3%. Sixty-seven patients needed continuous renal replacement therapy, 51 required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support, and 10 underwent extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Conclusions: We found that rates of neurological findings, hypotension, oliguria, acidosis, coagulation disorder, and cardiac arrest and PRISM III scores were higher in children who died early compared to those who died later.
Pediatrics
Perioperative hemodynamic protective assessment of adaptive support ventilation usage in pediatric surgical patients
Dmytro Dmytriiev, Mykola Melnychenko, Oleksandr Dobrovanov, Oleksandr Nazarchuk, Marian Vidiscak
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(4):636-643.   Published online October 19, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00297
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Background
The aim of this study was to evaluate the hemodynamic protective effects of perioperative ventilation in pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) and adaptive support ventilation (ASV) modes based on non-invasive hemodynamic monitoring indicators. Methods: The study included 32 patients who were scheduled for planned open abdominal surgery. Depending on the chosen ventilation strategy, patients were included in two groups of PCV mode ventilation (n=14) and ASV mode ventilation (n=18). The hemodynamic effects of the ventilation strategies were assessed by estimated continuous cardiac output (esCCO) and cardiac index (esCCI). Results: Preoperative cardiac output (CO) was 6.1±1.3 L/min in group 1 patients and 6.3±0.8 L/min in group 2 patients, and preoperative cardiac index (CI) was 3.9±0.4 L/min/m2 in group 1 patients and 3.8±0.8 L/min/m2 in group 2 patients. The ejection fraction (EF) in group 1 subjects was 55.4%±0.3%; this rate was 56.5%±0.5% in group 2 subjects. Group 1 patients experienced a 14.7% CO decrease to 5.2±0.7 L/min, a 17.9% CI decrease to 3.2±0.6 L/min/m2 , and a 12.8% mean arterial pressure decrease to 82.3±9.4 mm Hg 30 minutes after the start of surgery. One hour after the start of surgery, the CO mean values of group 2 patients were lower than baseline by 7.9% and differed from the dynamics of patients in group 1, in whom CO was lower than baseline by 13.1%. At the end of the operation, the CO values were lower than baseline by 11.5% and 6.3% in patients of groups 1 and 2, respectively. Our data showed that the changes in EF during and after surgery correlated with CO indicators determined by the esCCO. Conclusions: In our study, perioperative ventilation in ASV mode was more protective than PCV mode and was characterized by lower tidal volume (16.2%) and driving pressure (12.1%). Hemodynamically-controlled mechanical ventilation reduces the negative impact of cardiopulmonary interactions,
Pediatrics
Incidence and associated factors of pediatric post-intensive care syndrome using the VSCAREMD model
Paweethida Tippayawong, Chanapai Chaiyakulsil
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(4):627-635.   Published online October 19, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00234
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Background
The VSCAREMD model is used for evaluating vaccination, sleep, and parental care burden, which includes daily activity and social interaction, rehabilitation requirements, hearing, mood, and development. It has been proposed to detect post-intensive care syndrome (PICS) in children. This study aimed to outline the incidence of PICS in children using the VSCAREMD model and to describe the associated factors. Methods: All children ages 1 month to 15 years and admitted to the intensive care unit for at least 48 hours were evaluated using the VSCAREMD model within 1 week of intensive care discharge. Abnormal findings were assorted into four domains: physical, cognitive, mental, and social. Descriptive statistics were performed using chi-square, univariate, and multivariate analyses. Results: A total of 78 of 95 children (82.1%) had at least one abnormal domain. Physical, cognitive, mental, and social morbidity were found in 64.2%, 26.3%, 13.7%, and 38.9% of the children, respectively. Prolonged intensive care unit stay greater than 7 days was associated with dysfunction in physical (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31–11.00), cognitive (aOR, 10.11; 95% CI, 3.01–33.89), and social domains (aOR, 5.01; 95% CI, 2.01–12.73). Underlying medical conditions were associated with cognitive (aOR, 13.63; 95% CI, 2.64– 70.26) and social morbidity (aOR, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.06–7.47). Conclusions: The incidence of PICS using the VSCAREMD model was substantially high and associated with prolonged intensive care. This model could help evaluate PICS in children.
Nutrition
Comparison of mNUTRIC-S2 and mNUTRIC scores to assess nutritional risk and predict intensive care unit mortality
So Jeong Kim, Hong Yeul Lee, Sun Mi Choi, Sang-Min Lee, Jinwoo Lee
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(4):618-626.   Published online October 18, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00612
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
Nutritional status is associated with mortality. The modified Nutrition Risk in the Critically Ill (mNUTRIC) score is one of the most commonly used nutritional risk assessment tools in intensive care units (ICUs). The purpose of this study was to compare the mortality predictive ability of the mNUTRIC score to that of the mNUTRIC-S2 score, which uses the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II instead of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II. Methods: This retrospective cohort analysis included patients admitted to the ICU between January and September 2020. Each patient’s electronic medical records were reviewed. The model discrimination for predicting ICU mortality was assessed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and a Cox regression model was performed to confirm the relationship between the groups and mortality. Results: In total, 220 patients were enrolled. The ROC curve for predicting ICU mortality was 0.64 for the mNUTRIC score versus 0.67 for the mNUTRIC-S2 score. The difference between the areas was 0.03 (95% confidence interval [CI], –0.01 to 0.06; P=0.09). Patients with mNUTRIC-S2 score ≥5 had a greater risk of ICU mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 3.64; 95% CI, 1.85–7.14; P<0.001); however, no such relationship was observed with mNUTRIC score (HR, 1.69; 95% CI, 0.62–4.62; P=0.31). Conclusions: The mNUTRIC-S2 score was significantly associated with ICU mortality. A cutoff score of 5 was selected as most appropriate.
CPR/Resuscitation
Diet-related complications according to the timing of enteral nutrition support in patients who recovered from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a propensity score matched analysis
Gun Woo Kim, Young-Il Roh, Kyoung-Chul Cha, Sung Oh Hwang, Jae Hun Han, Woo Jin Jung
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(4):610-617.   Published online October 27, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00696
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
A proper nutritional plan for resuscitated patients is important in intensive care; however, specific nutritional guidelines have not yet been established. This study aimed to determine the incidence of diet-related complications that were affected by the timing of enteral nutrition in resuscitated patients after cardiac arrest. Methods: This retrospective and 1:1 propensity score matching study involved patients who recovered after nontraumatic, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest at a tertiary hospital. Patients were divided into an early nutrition support (ENS) group and a delayed nutrition support (DNS) group according to the nutritional support time within 48 hours after admission. The incidence of major clinical complications was compared between the groups. Results: A total of 46 patients (ENS: 23, DNS: 23) were enrolled in the study. There were no differences in body mass index, comorbidity, and time of cardiopulmonary resuscitation between the two groups. There were 9 patients (ENS: 4, DNS: 5) with aspiration pneumonia; 4 patients (ENS: 2, DNS: 2) with regurgitation; 1 patient (ENS: 0, DNS: 1) with ileus; 21 patients (ENS: 10, DNS: 11) with fever; 13 patients (ENS: 8, DNS: 5) with hypoglycemia; and 20 patients (ENS: 11, DNS: 9) with hyperglycemia. The relative risk of each complication during post-resuscitation care was no different between groups. Conclusions: There was a similar incidence of diet-related complications during post cardiac arrest care according to the timing of enteral nutrition.
CPR/Resuscitation
Association between C-reactive protein-to-albumin ratio and 6-month mortality in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest
Hui Hwan Kim, Ji Ho Lee, Dong Hun Lee, Byung Kook Lee
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(4):601-609.   Published online August 18, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00542
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
The inflammatory response that occurs following cardiac arrest can determine the long-term prognosis of patients who survive out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. We evaluated the correlation between C-reactive protein-to-albumin ratio (CAR) following cardiac arrest and long-term mortality. Methods: The current retrospective observational study examined patients with post-cardiac arrest syndrome (PCAS) treated with targeted temperature management at a single tertiary care hospital. We measured CAR at four time points (at admission and then 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours after) following cardiac arrest. The primary outcome was the patients’ 6-month mortality. We performed multivariable and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analyses to investigate the relationship between CAR and 6-month mortality. Results: Among the 115 patients, 52 (44.1%) died within 6 months. In the multivariable analysis, CAR at 48 hours (odds ratio [OR], 1.130; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.027–1.244) and 72 hours (OR, 1.241; 95% CI, 1.059–1.455) after cardiac arrest was independently associated with 6-month mortality. The AUCs of CAR at admission and 24, 48, and 72 hours after cardiac arrest for predicting 6-month mortality were 0.583 (95% CI, 0.489–0.673), 0.622 (95% CI, 0.528–0.710), 0.706 (95% CI, 0.615–0.786), and 0.762 (95% CI, 0.675–0.835), respectively. Conclusions: CAR at 72 hours after cardiac arrest was an independent predictor for long-term mortality in patients with PCAS.
Pulmonary
Agreement between two methods for assessment of maximal inspiratory pressure in patients weaning from mechanical ventilation
Emanuelle Olympia Silva Ribeiro, Rik Gosselink, Lizandra Eveline da Silva Moura, Raissa Farias Correia, Wagner Souza Leite, Maria das Graças Rodrigues de Araújo, Armele Dornelas de Andrade, Daniella Cunha Brandão, Shirley Lima Campos
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(4):592-600.   Published online October 27, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00325
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Background
Respiratory muscle strength in patients with an artificial airway is commonly assessed as the maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and is measured using analogue or digital manometers. Recently, new electronic loading devices have been proposed to measure respiratory muscle strength. This study evaluates the agreement between the MIPs measured by a digital manometer and those according to an electronic loading device in patients being weaned from mechanical ventilation. Methods: In this prospective study, the standard MIP was obtained using a protocol adapted from Marini, in which repetitive inspiratory efforts were performed against an occluded airway with a one-way valve and were recorded with a digital manometer for 40 seconds (MIPDM). The MIP measured using the electronic loading device (MIPELD) was obtained from repetitively tapered flow resistive inspirations sustained for at least 2 seconds during a 40-second test. The agreement between the results was verified by a Bland-Altman analysis. Results: A total of 39 subjects (17 men, 55.4±17.7 years) was enrolled. Although a strong correlation between MIPDM and MIPELD (R=0.73, P<0.001) was observed, the Bland-Altman analysis showed a high bias of –47.4 (standard deviation, 22.3 cm H2O; 95% confidence interval, –54.7 to –40.2 cm H2O). Conclusions: The protocol of repetitively tapering flow resistive inspirations to measure the MIP with the electronic loading device is not in agreement with the standard protocol using one-way valve inspiratory occlusion when applied in poorly cooperative patients being weaned from mechanical ventilation.
Pulmonary
An algorithm to predict the need for invasive mechanical ventilation in hospitalized COVID-19 patients: the experience in Sao Paulo
Eduardo Atsushi Osawa, Alexandre Toledo Maciel
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(4):580-591.   Published online September 8, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00283
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
We aimed to characterize patients hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and identify predictors of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study in patients with COVID-19 admitted to a private network in Sao Paulo, Brazil from March to October 2020. Patients were compared in three subgroups: non-intensive care unit (ICU) admission (group A), ICU admission without receiving IMV (group B) and IMV requirement (group C). We developed logistic regression algorithm to identify predictors of IMV. Results: We analyzed 1,650 patients, the median age was 53 years (42–65) and 986 patients (59.8%) were male. The median duration from symptom onset to hospital admission was 7 days (5–9) and the main comorbidities were hypertension (42.4%), diabetes (24.2%) and obesity (15.8%). We found differences among subgroups in laboratory values obtained at hospital admission. The predictors of IMV (odds ratio and 95% confidence interval [CI]) were male (1.81 [1.11– 2.94], P=0.018), age (1.03 [1.02–1.05], P<0.001), obesity (2.56 [1.57–4.15], P<0.001), duration from symptom onset to admission (0.91 [0.85–0.98], P=0.011), arterial oxygen saturation (0.95 [0.92– 0.99], P=0.012), C-reactive protein (1.005 [1.002–1.008], P<0.001), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (1.046 [1.005–1.089], P=0.029) and lactate dehydrogenase (1.005 [1.003–1.007], P<0.001). The area under the curve values were 0.860 (95% CI, 0.829–0.892) in the development cohort and 0.801 (95% CI, 0.733–0.870) in the validation cohort. Conclusions: Patients had distinct clinical and laboratory parameters early in hospital admission. Our prediction model may enable focused care in patients at high risk of IMV.
Pulmonary
Extravascular lung water index, pulmonary vascular permeability index, and global end-diastolic volume index in mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients requiring prone position ventilation: a preliminary retrospective study
Rosanna Carmela De Rosa, Antonio Romanelli, Michele Gallifuoco, Giovanni Messina, Marianne Di Costanzo, Antonio Corcione
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(4):571-579.   Published online November 10, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00423
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
There is a lack of data on extravascular lung water index (EVLWi), pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPi), and global end-diastolic volume index (GEDVi) during prone position ventilation (PPV) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. The objectives of this study were to analyze trends in EVLWi, PVPi, and GEDVi during PPV and the relationships between these parameters and PaO2/FiO2. Methods: In this preliminary retrospective observational study, we performed transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD) in seven mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients without cardiac and pulmonary comorbidities requiring PPV for 18 hours, at specific times (30 minutes pre-PPV, 18 hours after PPV, and 3 hours after supination). EVLWi, PVPi and GEDVi were measured. The relationships between PaO2/FiO2 and EVLWi, and PVPi and GEDVi values, in the supine position were analyzed by linear regression. Correlation and determination coefficients were calculated. Results: EVLWi was significantly different between three time points (analysis of variance, P=0.004). After 18 hours in PPV, EVLWi was lower compared with values before PPV (12.7±0.9 ml/kg vs. 15.3±1.5 ml/kg, P=0.002). Linear regression showed that only EVLWi was correlated with PaO2/FiO2 (β =–5.757; 95% confidence interval, –10.835 to –0.679; r=–0.58; R2 =0.34; F-test P=0.029). Conclusions: EVLWi was significantly reduced after 18 hours in PPV and values measured in supine positions were correlated with PaO2/FiO2. This relationship can help clinicians discriminate whether deterioration in gas exchange is related to fluid overload or disease progression. Further clinical research should evaluate the role of TPTD parameters as markers to stratify disease severity and guide clinical management.
Pulmonary
Association between timing of intubation and mortality in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Eunhye Bae, Jimyung Park, Sun Mi Choi, Jinwoo Lee, Sang-Min Lee, Hong Yeul Lee
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(4):561-570.   Published online October 28, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00444
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
Delayed intubation is associated with poor prognosis in patients with respiratory failure. However, the effect of delayed intubation in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) remains unknown. This study aimed to analyze whether timing of intubation after high-concentration oxygen therapy was associated with worse clinical outcomes in IPF patients. Methods: This retrospective propensity score-matched study enrolled adult patients with IPF who underwent mechanical ventilation between January 2011 and July 2021. Patients were divided into early and delayed intubation groups. Delayed intubation was defined as use of high-concentration oxygen therapy for at least 48 hours before tracheal intubation. The primary outcome was intensive care unit (ICU) mortality, and a conditional logistic regression model was used to evaluate the association between timing of intubation and clinical outcomes. Results: The median duration of high-concentration oxygen therapy before intubation was 0.5 days in the early intubation group (n=60) and 5.1 days in the delayed intubation group (n=36). The ICU mortality rate was 56.7% and 75% in the early and delayed intubation groups, respectively, before propensity matching (P=0.075). After matching for demographic and clinical covariates, 33 matched pairs were selected. In the propensity-matched cohort, delayed intubation significantly increased the risk of ICU mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 3.99; 95% confidence interval, 1.02–15.63; P=0.046). However, in-hospital mortality did not differ significantly between the groups. Conclusions: In patients with IPF, delayed intubation after initiation of high-concentration oxygen therapy was significantly associated with increased risk of ICU mortality compared to early intubation.
Pulmonary
The frequency and seasonal distribution of viral infection in patients with community-acquired pneumonia and its impact on the prognosis
Kyung Jun Kim, Doh Hyung Kim
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(4):550-560.   Published online October 6, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00682
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Studies on the effects of viral coinfection on bacterial pneumonia are still scarce in South Korea. This study investigates the frequency and seasonal distribution of virus infection and its impact on the prognosis in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Methods: The medical records of CAP patients with definite etiology, such as viruses and bacteria, were retrospectively reviewed. Their epidemiologic and clinical characteristics, microbiologic test results, the severity of illness, and 30-day mortality were analyzed. Results: Among 150 study subjects, 68 patients (45.3%) had viral infection alone, 47 (31.3%) had bacterial infection alone, and 35 (23.3%) had viral-bacterial coinfection, respectively. Among 103 patients with viral infections, Influenza A virus (44%) was the most common virus, followed by rhinovirus (19%), influenza B (13%), and adenovirus (6%). The confusion-urea-respiratory rateblood pressure-age of 65 (CURB-65) score of the viral-bacterial coinfection was higher than that of the viral infection (median [interquartile range]: 2.0 [1.0–4.0] vs. 2.0 [0.3–3.0], P=0.029). The 30-day mortality of the viral infection alone group (2.9%) was significantly lower than that of bacterial infection alone (19.1%) and viral-bacterial coinfection (25.7%) groups (Bonferroni-corrected P<0.05). Viral-bacterial coinfection was the stronger predictor of 30-day mortality in CAP (odds ratio [OR], 18.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.0–118.3; P=0.002) than bacterial infection alone (OR, 6.3; 95% CI, 1.1–36.4; P=0.041), compared to viral infection alone on the multivariate analysis. Conclusions: The etiology of viral infection in CAP is different according to regional characteristics. Viral-bacterial coinfection showed a worse prognosis than bacterial infection alone in patients with CAP.
Pulmonary
Incidence and risk factors associated with progression to severe pneumonia among adults with non-severe Legionella pneumonia
Jin-Young Huh, Sang-Ho Choi, Kyung-Wook Jo, Jin Won Huh, Sang-Bum Hong, Tae Sun Shim, Chae-Man Lim, Younsuck Koh
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(4):543-549.   Published online October 21, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00521
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Legionella species are important causative organisms of severe pneumonia. However, data are limited on predictors of progression to severe Legionella pneumonia (LP). Therefore, the risk factors for LP progression from non-severe to the severe form were investigated in the present study. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study that included adult LP patients admitted to a 2,700-bed referral center between January 2005 and December 2019. Results: A total of 155 patients were identified during the study period; 58 patients (37.4%) initially presented with severe pneumonia and 97 (62.6%) patients with non-severe pneumonia. Among the 97 patients, 28 (28.9%) developed severe pneumonia during hospitalization and 69 patients (71.1%) recovered without progression to severe pneumonia. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed platelet count ≤150,000/mm3 (odds ratio [OR], 2.923; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.100–8.105; P=0.034) and delayed antibiotic treatment >1 day (OR, 3.092; 95% CI, 1.167–8.727; P=0.026) were significant independent factors associated with progression to severe pneumonia. Conclusions: A low platelet count and delayed antibiotic treatment were significantly associated with the progression of non-severe LP to severe LP.
Infection
The prognostic impact of rheumatoid arthritis in sepsis: a population-based analysis
Lavi Oud, John Garza
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(4):533-542.   Published online October 6, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00787
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with increased risk of sepsis and higher infection-related mortality compared to the general population. However, the evidence on the prognostic impact of RA in sepsis has been inconclusive. We aimed to estimate the population-level association of RA with short-term mortality in sepsis. Methods: We used statewide data to identify hospitalizations aged ≥18 years in Texas with sepsis, with and without RA during 2014–2017. Hierarchical logistic models with propensity adjustment (primary model), propensity score matching, and multivariable logistic regression without propensity adjustment were used to estimate the association of RA with short-term mortality among sepsis hospitalizations. Results: Among 283,025 sepsis hospitalizations, 7,689 (2.7%) had RA. Compared to sepsis hospitalizations without RA, those with RA were older (aged ≥65 years, 63.9% vs. 56.4%) and had higher burden of comorbidities (mean Deyo comorbidity index, 3.2 vs. 2.7). Short-term mortality of sepsis hospitalizations with and without RA was 26.8% vs. 31.4%. Following adjustment for confounders, short-term mortality was lower among RA patients (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.910; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.856–0.967), with similar findings on alternative models. On sensitivity analyses, short-term mortality was lower in RA patients among sepsis hospitalizations aged ≥65 years and those with septic shock, but not among those admitted to intensive care unit (ICU; aOR, 0.990; 95% CI, 0.909–1.079). Conclusions: RA was associated, unexpectedly, with lower short-term mortality in septic patients. However, this “protective” association was driven by those patients without ICU admission. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings and to examine the underlying mechanisms.
Infection
Validation of presepsin measurement for mortality prediction of sepsis: a preliminary study
Seung Min Baik, Jin Park, Tae Yoon Kim, Se Hong Choi, Kyung Sook Hong
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(4):527-532.   Published online August 19, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00150
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Background
Sepsis and septic shock remain the leading causes of death in critically ill patients worldwide. Various biomarkers are available to determine the prognosis and therapeutic effects of sepsis. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of presepsin as a sepsis biomarker. Methods: Patients admitted to the intensive care unit with major or minor diagnosis of sepsis were categorized into survival and non-survival groups. The white blood cell count and serum C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and presepsin levels were measured in all patients. Results: The study included 40 patients (survival group, 32; non-survival group, 8; mortality rate, 20%). The maximum serum presepsin levels measured during intensive care unit admission were significantly higher in the non-survival group (median [interquartile range]: 4,205.5 pg/ml [1,155.8–10,094.0] vs. 741.5 pg/ml [520.0–1,317.5], P<0.05). No statistically significant intergroup differences were observed in the maximum, minimum, and mean values of the white blood cell count, as well as serum C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin levels. Based on the receiver operating characteristic curve, the area under the curve for presepsin as a predictor of sepsis mortality was 0.764. At a cut-off value of 1,898.5 pg/ml, the sensitivity and specificity of presepsin for prediction of sepsis-induced mortality were 75.0% and 87.5%, respectively. Conclusions: Early diagnosis of sepsis and prediction of sepsis-induced mortality are important for prompt initiation of treatment. Presepsin may serve as an effective biomarker for prediction of sepsis-induced mortality and for evaluation of treatment effectiveness.

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