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Volume 33 (1); February 2018
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Review
Surgery
Reducing Unnecessary Testing in the Intensive Care Unit by Choosing Wisely
Ruth M. Kleinpell, J. Christopher Farmer, Stephen M. Pastores
Acute Crit Care. 2018;33(1):1-6.   Published online February 28, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2018.00052
  • 17,558 View
  • 562 Download
  • 12 Web of Science
  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Overuse of laboratory and X-ray testing is common in the intensive care unit (ICU). This review highlights focused strategies for critical care clinicians as outlined by the Critical Care Societies Collaborative (CCSC) as part of the American Board of Internal Medicine Foundation’s Choosing Wisely® campaign. The campaign aims to promote the use of judicious testing and decrease unnecessary treatment measures in the ICU. The CCSC outlines five specific recommendations for reducing unnecessary testing in the ICU. First, reduce the use of daily or regular interval diagnostic testing. Second, do not transfuse red blood cells in hemodynamically stable, non-bleeding ICU patients with a hemoglobin concentration greater than 7 mg/dl. Third, do not use parenteral nutrition in adequately nourished critically ill patients within the first 7 days of ICU stay. Fourth, do not deeply sedate mechanically ventilated patients without a specific indication and without daily attempts to lighten sedation. Finally, do not continue life support for patients at high risk of death without offering patients and their families the alternative of comfort focused care. A number of strategies can be used to reduce unnecessary testing in the ICU, including educational campaigns, audit and feedback, and implementing prompts in the electronic ordering system to allow only acceptable indications when ordering routine testing. Greater awareness of the lack of outcome benefit and associated costs can prompt clinicians to be more mindful of ordering tests and procedures in order to reduce unnecessary testing in the ICU.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Interventions to improve appropriateness of laboratory testing in the intensive care unit: a narrative review
    Luigi Devis, Emilie Catry, Patrick M. Honore, Alexandre Mansour, Giuseppe Lippi, François Mullier, Mélanie Closset
    Annals of Intensive Care.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Blood gas sampling in the intensive care unit: A prospective before-and-after interventional study on the effect of an educational program on blood gas testing frequency
    Benjamin Cunanan, Haindavi Muppa, Liliana Orellana, Samantha Bates, Forbes McGain
    Australian Critical Care.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Cost analysis of hospitals performing continuous albuterol in non-intensive care settings
    Adjoa A. Andoh,, Charmaine B. Lo,, Junxin Shi,, Ryan S. Bode,, Samantha W. Gee,, Julie C. Leonard,
    Journal of Asthma.2023; 60(2): 314.     CrossRef
  • What blood conservation practices are effective at reducing blood sampling volumes and other clinical sequelae in intensive care? A systematic review
    Samantha Keogh, Saira Mathew, Amanda J. Ullman, Claire M. Rickard, Fiona Coyer
    Australian Critical Care.2023; 36(6): 1129.     CrossRef
  • Towards net zero: critical care
    Heather Baid, Eleanor Damm, Louise Trent, Forbes McGain
    BMJ.2023; : e069044.     CrossRef
  • Effect of a Performance Feedback Dashboard on Hospitalist Laboratory Test Utilization
    Caroline McCormick, Sarvpreet Ahluwalia, Ankur Segon
    American Journal of Medical Quality.2023; 38(6): 273.     CrossRef
  • Availability of Multiple Organ Failure Score Components in Surgical Patients
    Maxwell C. Braasch, Bachar N. Halimeh, Christopher A. Guidry
    Surgical Infections.2022; 23(2): 178.     CrossRef
  • Impact of Blood Sampling on Anemia in the PICU: A Prospective Cohort Study
    Tine François, Michaël Sauthier, Julien Charlier, Jessica Dessureault, Marisa Tucci, Karen Harrington, Laurence Ducharme-Crevier, Sally Al Omar, Jacques Lacroix, Geneviève Du Pont-Thibodeau
    Pediatric Critical Care Medicine.2022; 23(6): 435.     CrossRef
  • Predicting Abnormal Laboratory Blood Test Results in the Intensive Care Unit Using Novel Features Based on Information Theory and Historical Conditional Probability: Observational Study
    Camilo E Valderrama, Daniel J Niven, Henry T Stelfox, Joon Lee
    JMIR Medical Informatics.2022; 10(6): e35250.     CrossRef
  • Implementation and Impact of Choosing Wisely Recommendations in Oncology
    Sonieya Nagarajah, Melanie Lynn Powis, Rouhi Fazelzad, Monika K. Krzyzanowska, Vishal Kukreti
    JCO Oncology Practice.2022; 18(10): 703.     CrossRef
  • Blood loss from laboratory testing, anemia, and red blood cell transfusion in the intensive care unit: a retrospective study
    Nicholas L. Jackson Chornenki, Tyler E. James, Rebecca Barty, Yang Liu, Bram Rochwerg, Nancy M. Heddle, Deborah M. Siegal
    Transfusion.2020; 60(2): 256.     CrossRef
  • Audit and feedback to improve laboratory test and transfusion ordering in critical care: a systematic review
    Madison Foster, Justin Presseau, Nicola McCleary, Kelly Carroll, Lauralyn McIntyre, Brian Hutton, Jamie Brehaut
    Implementation Science.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Labordiagnostik in der Intensivmedizin
    S. Petros, L. Weidhase
    Medizinische Klinik - Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin.2020; 115(7): 539.     CrossRef
  • Labordiagnostik in der Intensivmedizin
    Sirak Petros, Lorenz Weidhase
    Wiener klinisches Magazin.2020; 23(6): 298.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Pulmonary
Global and Regional Ventilation during High Flow Nasal Cannula in Patients with Hypoxia
Dong Hyun Lee, Eun Young Kim, Ga Jin Seo, Hee Jung Suh, Jin Won Huh, Sang-Bum Hong, Younsuck Koh, Chae-Man Lim
Acute Crit Care. 2018;33(1):7-15.   Published online January 22, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2017.00507
Correction in: Acute Crit Care 2021;36(2):173
  • 8,510 View
  • 252 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
High flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is known to increase global ventilation volume in healthy subjects. We sought to investigate the effect of HFNC on global and regional ventilation patterns in patients with hypoxia.
Methods
Patients were randomized to receive one of two oxygen therapies in sequence: nasal cannula (NC) followed by HFNC or HFNC followed by NC. Global and regional ventilation was assessed using electric impedance tomography.
Results
Twenty-four patients participated. Global tidal variation (TV) in the lung was higher during HFNC (NC, 2,241 ± 1,381 arbitrary units (AU); HFNC, 2,543 ± 1,534 AU; P < 0.001). Regional TVs for four iso-gravitational quadrants of the lung were also all higher during HFNC than NC. The coefficient of variation for the four quadrants of the lung was 0.90 ± 0.61 during NC and 0.77 ± 0.48 during HFNC (P = 0.035). Within the four gravitational layers of the lung, regional TVs were higher in the two middle layers during HFNC when compared to NC. Regional TV values in the most ventral and dorsal layers of the lung were not higher during HFNC compared with NC. The coefficient of variation for the four gravitational layers of the lung were 1.00 ± 0.57 during NC and 0.97 ± 0.42 during HFNC (P = 0.574).
Conclusions
In patients with hypoxia, ventilation of iso-gravitational regions of the lung during HFNC was higher and more homogenized compared with NC. However, ventilation of gravitational layers increased only in the middle layers. (Clinical trials registration number: NCT02943863).

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • High-flow nasal cannulae for respiratory support in adult intensive care patients
    Sharon R Lewis, Philip E Baker, Roses Parker, Andrew F Smith
    Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Failure of High-Flow Nasal Cannula Therapy in Pneumonia and Non-Pneumonia Sepsis Patients: A Prospective Cohort Study
    Eunhye Kim, Kyeongman Jeon, Dong Kyu Oh, Young-Jae Cho, Sang-Bum Hong, Yeon Joo Lee, Sang-Min Lee, Gee Young Suh, Mi-Hyeon Park, Chae-Man Lim, Sunghoon Park
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2021; 10(16): 3587.     CrossRef
  • High-flow nasal cannulae for respiratory support in adult intensive care patients
    Sharon R Lewis, Philip E Baker, Roses Parker, Andrew F Smith
    Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
Neurology
The Effect of Electrical Muscle Stimulation and In-bed Cycling on Muscle Strength and Mass of Mechanically Ventilated Patients: A Pilot Study
Kyeongyoon Woo, Jeongmin Kim, Hye Bin Kim, Hyunwoo, Choi, Kibum Kim, Donghyung Lee, Sungwon Na
Acute Crit Care. 2018;33(1):16-22.   Published online February 14, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2017.00542
  • 9,542 View
  • 341 Download
  • 11 Web of Science
  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Critically ill patients experience muscle weakness, which leads to functional disability. Both functional electrical stimulation (FES) and in-bed cycling can be an alternative measure for intensive care unit (ICU) patients who are not feasible for active exercise. The aim of this study was to examine whether FES and in-bed cycling have a positive effect on muscle mass in ICU patients.
Methods
Critically ill patients who received mechanical ventilation for at least 24 hours were included. After passive range of motion exercise, in-bed cycling was applied for 20 minutes, and FES was applied for 20 minutes on the left leg. The right leg received in-bed cycling and the left leg received both FES and in-bed cycling. Thigh circumferences and rectus femoris cross-sectional area (CSA) were assessed with ultrasonography before and after the intervention. Muscle strength was assessed by Medical Research Council scale.
Results
A total of 10 patients were enrolled in this study as a pilot study. Before and after the intervention, the CSA of right rectus femoris increased from 5.08 ± 1.51 cm2 to 6.01 ± 2.21 cm2 , which was statistically significant (P = 0.003). The thigh circumference was also increased and statistically significant (P = 0.006). There was no difference between left and right in regard to FES application. There is no significant change in muscle strength before and after the intervention (right and left, P = 0.317 and P = 0.368, respectively).
Conclusions
In-bed cycling increased thigh circumferences rectus femoris CSA. Adding FES did not show differences.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Assisted mobilisation in critical patients with COVID-19
    M. Polastri, F. Daniele, F. Tagariello
    Pulmonology.2024; 30(2): 152.     CrossRef
  • Ultrasound for measurement of skeletal muscle mass quantity and muscle composition/architecture in critically ill patients: A scoping review on studies' aims, methods, and findings
    Júlia Lima, Estéfani Foletto, Rafaella C.B. Cardoso, Charlles Garbelotto, Aline P. Frenzel, Juliana U. Carneiro, Larissa S. Carpes, Thiago G. Barbosa-Silva, Maria Cristina Gonzalez, Flávia M. Silva
    Clinical Nutrition.2024; 43(1): 95.     CrossRef
  • Current Concepts in Early Mobilization of Critically Ill Patients Within the Context of Neurologic Pathology
    Thaís Ferreira Lopes Diniz Maia, Paulo André Freire Magalhães, Dasdores Tatiana Silva Santos, Jorge Luiz de Brito Gomes, Paulo Adriano Schwingel, Aline de Freitas Brito
    Neurocritical Care.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Anabolic Strategies for ICU-Acquired Weakness. What Can We Learn from Bodybuilders?
    Jakub Tarnawski, Maja Czub, Marta Dymecki, Medha Sunil, Marcin Folwarski
    Nutrients.2024; 16(13): 2011.     CrossRef
  • Human skeletal muscle size with ultrasound imaging: a comprehensive review
    Masatoshi Naruse, Scott Trappe, Todd A. Trappe
    Journal of Applied Physiology.2022; 132(5): 1267.     CrossRef
  • Rehabilitation Therapy after the COVID-19 Era: Focused on Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation
    Hyung Ik Shin
    Annals of CardioPulmonary Rehabilitation.2021; 1(1): 17.     CrossRef
  • Rehabilitation Programs for Bedridden Patients with Prolonged Immobility: A Scoping Review Protocol
    Vitor Parola, Hugo Neves, Filipa Margarida Duque, Rafael A. Bernardes, Remy Cardoso, Carla A. Mendes, Liliana B. Sousa, Paulo Santos-Costa, Cândida Malça, Rúben Durães, Pedro Parreira, João Apóstolo, Arménio Cruz
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(22): 12033.     CrossRef
  • Non-paretic lower limb muscle wasting during acute phase is associated with dependent ambulation in patients with stroke
    Masafumi Nozoe, Masashi Kanai, Hiroki Kubo, Miho Yamamoto, Shinichi Shimada, Kyoshi Mase
    Journal of Clinical Neuroscience.2020; 74: 141.     CrossRef
  • Intensive Care Unit-Acquired Weakness: Not Just Another Muscle Atrophying Condition
    Heta Lad, Tyler M. Saumur, Margaret S. Herridge, Claudia C. dos Santos, Sunita Mathur, Jane Batt, Penney M. Gilbert
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2020; 21(21): 7840.     CrossRef
  • Problems with Rehabilitation for Critically ill Patients
    Masaji Nishimura
    The Japanese Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine.2019; 56(1): 48.     CrossRef
  • Exploring the Potential Effectiveness of Combining Optimal Nutrition With Electrical Stimulation to Maintain Muscle Health in Critical Illness: A Narrative Review
    Selina M. Parry, Lee‐anne S. Chapple, Marina Mourtzakis
    Nutrition in Clinical Practice.2018; 33(6): 772.     CrossRef
Neurology
The Effects of a Delirium Notification Program on the Clinical Outcomes of the Intensive Care Unit: A Preliminary Pilot Study
Jaesub Park, Seung-Taek Oh, Sunyoung Park, Won-Jung Choi, Cheung Soo Shin, Se Hee Na, Jae-Jin Kim, Jooyoung Oh, Jin Young Park
Acute Crit Care. 2018;33(1):23-33.   Published online February 6, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2017.00584
  • 9,540 View
  • 185 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Delirium is common among intensive care unit (ICU) patients, so recent clinical guidelines recommended routine delirium monitoring in the ICU. But, its effect on the patient’s clinical outcome is still controversial. In particular, the effect of systems that inform the primary physician of the results of monitoring is largely unknown.
Methods
The delirium notification program using bedside signs and electronic chart notifications was applied to the pre-existing delirium monitoring protocol. Every patient was routinely evaluated for delirium, pain, and anxiety using validated tools. Clinical outcomes, including duration of delirium, ICU stay, and mortality were reviewed and compared for 3 months before and after the program implementation.
Results
There was no significant difference between the two periods of delirium, ICU stay, and mortality. However, anxiety, an important prognostic factor in the ICU survivor’s mental health, was significantly reduced and pain tended to decrease.
Conclusions
Increasing the physician’s awareness of the patient’s mental state by using a notification program could reduce the anxiety of ICU patients even though it may not reduce delirium. The results suggested that the method of delivering the results of monitoring was also an important factor in the success of the delirium monitoring program.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Adaptation and Validation of a Chart‐Based Delirium Detection Tool for the ICU (CHART‐DEL‐ICU)
    Karla D. Krewulak, Carmen Hiploylee, E. W. Ely, Henry T. Stelfox, Sharon K. Inouye, Kirsten M. Fiest
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.2021; 69(4): 1027.     CrossRef
Infection
The Effects of Flecainide Acetate on Inflammatory-Immune Response in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Neutrophils and on Mortality in Septic Rats
Shi Young Chung, Jinyoung Kim, Hong Bum Bae, Tran Duc Tin, Wan Ju, Sang Hyun Kwak
Acute Crit Care. 2018;33(1):34-41.   Published online February 28, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2017.00577
  • 7,799 View
  • 128 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Flecainide acetate is a drug used primarily for cardiac arrhythmia. Some studies also imply that flecainide acetate has the potential to regulate inflammatory-immune responses; however, its mechanism of action is contended. We determined the effects of flecainide acetate on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human neutrophils in vitro and on mortality in a septic rat model.
Methods
Neutrophils from human blood were cultured with varying concentrations of flecainide acetate (1 μM, 10 μM, or 100 μM) with or without LPS (100 ng/ml). To assess neutrophil activation, the protein levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 were measured after a 4-hour culture period. To assess the intracellular signaling pathways, the levels of phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) were measured after a 30-minute culture period, and the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB was measured after a 1-hour culture period. Additionally, the survival rate was investigated in a rat sepsis model.
Results
Flecainide acetate down-regulated the activation of proinflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α and IL-6 and IL-8, and intracellular signaling pathways including ERK 1/2 and NF-κB. Flecainide acetate also improved the survival rate in the rat sepsis model.
Conclusions
Collectively, these findings indicate that flecainide acetate can improve survival in a rat sepsis model by attenuating LPS-induced neutrophil responses. We therefore suggest that flecainide acetate plays an important role in modulating inflammatoryimmune responses.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Persistence is key: unresolved immune dysfunction is lethal in both COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 sepsis
    Andy Y. An, Arjun Baghela, Peter Zhang, Reza Falsafi, Amy H. Lee, Uriel Trahtemberg, Andrew J. Baker, Claudia C. dos Santos, Robert E. W. Hancock
    Frontiers in Immunology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Editorials
Basic science and research
New Name of the Journal
Chae-Man Lim
Acute Crit Care. 2018;33(1):42-42.   Published online February 28, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2018.00094
  • 4,762 View
  • 74 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
PDF

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Acute and Critical Care will be indexed in PubMed, PubMed Central, Emerging Sources Citation Index, and Scopus
    Jae Hwa Cho
    Acute and Critical Care.2019; 34(3): 219.     CrossRef
Basic science and research
Rehabilitation and Intensive Care Unit
Deokkyu Kim
Acute Crit Care. 2018;33(1):43-45.   Published online February 28, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2018.00080
  • 5,549 View
  • 148 Download
PDF
Case Reports
Pulmonary
Termination of Idiopathic Sustained Monomorphic Ventricular Tachycardia by Synchronized Electrical Cardioversion during Pregnancy
Sungmin Lee
Acute Crit Care. 2018;33(1):46-50.   Published online February 20, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2016.00115
  • 8,020 View
  • 158 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The most common cardiac complications detected during pregnancy are an arrhythmia. However, idiopathic continuous monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT) during pregnancy is unusual. A 31-year-old pregnant woman presented at 20 weeks of gestation with progressive palpitation and episodes of agitation. An initial 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) showed normal sinus rhythm. However, 30 minutes after presenting at the emergency room, she complained of chest pain. A subsequent ECG showed wide complex monomorphic VT. We attempted to administer an antiarrhythmic drug, but the patient refused any medication because of concerns regarding possible adverse effects on the fetus. Therefore, we performed synchronized electrical cardioversion eight times. After the eighth synchronized cardioversion at 200 J, the ECG showed successful restoration of sinus rhythm. The condition of the fetus was monitored via ultrasonography and cardiotocography, and no adverse events were observed. We present the case of a successful synchronized electrical cardioversion performed in a woman at 20 weeks of gestation because of sustained symptomatic VT.
Surgery
Critical Illness Neuromyopathy Complicating Cardiac Surgery
Wan Ki Baek, Young Sam Kim, Joung Taek Kim, Byoung-Nam Yoon
Acute Crit Care. 2018;33(1):51-56.   Published online July 11, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2016.00255
  • 6,384 View
  • 151 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Critical illness neuromyopathy (CINM) is a sporadically reported disease in the setting of an intensive care unit developing in the process of managing a critical illness. The disease primarily affects the motor and sensory axons and results in severe limb weakness rendering ventilator weaning extremely difficult. We report a case of CINM after cardiac valve surgery. Quadriplegia developed after the operation and resolved slowly over the following 2 months. The patient was discharged home free of neurologic symptoms.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Quadriplegia after Mitral Valve Replacement in an Infective Endocarditis Patient with Cervical Spine Spondylitis
    Ji Min Lee, Seon Yeong Heo, Dong Kyu Kim, Jong Pil Jung, Chang Ryul Park, Yong Jik Lee, Gwan Sic Kim
    Journal of Chest Surgery.2021; 54(3): 218.     CrossRef
  • Perforated Toxic Megacolon: The Dreaded Complication in IBD
    Kanmani Murugesu, PremanandanN Sivadasan, Michael Arvind, WilsonLiew Wei Xin
    World Journal of Colorectal Surgery.2020; 9(4): 70.     CrossRef
Letters to the Editor
Neurology
Implication of Neurological Pupil Index for Monitoring of Brain Edema
Tae Jung Kim, Sang-Bae Ko
Acute Crit Care. 2018;33(1):57-60.   Published online February 28, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2017.00213
  • 9,354 View
  • 221 Download
  • 4 Web of Science
  • 6 Crossref
PDF

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Approaches to Consciousness Assessment in Neurocritically Ill Patients
    Dong-Wan Kang, Tae Jung Kim
    Journal of the Korean Neurological Association.2024; 42(2): 107.     CrossRef
  • Quantitative assessments of pupillary light reflexes in neurocritically ill patients
    Tae Jung Kim
    Journal of Neurocritical Care.2022; 15(2): 79.     CrossRef
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    Petra Opic, Stephan Rüegg, Stephan Marsch, Stephan Sebastian Gut, Raoul Sutter
    Neurology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Neurological Pupil Index as an Indicator of Neurological Worsening in Large Hemispheric Strokes
    Tae Jung Kim, Soo-Hyun Park, Hae-Bong Jeong, Eun Jin Ha, Won Sang Cho, Hyun-Seung Kang, Jung Eun Kim, Sang-Bae Ko
    Neurocritical Care.2020; 33(2): 575.     CrossRef
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    Federico Romagnosi, Filippo Bongiovanni, Mauro Oddo
    Current Opinion in Critical Care.2020; 26(2): 115.     CrossRef
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    Salah G. Aoun, Babu G. Welch, Michaela Cortes, Sonja E. Stutzman, Matthew C. MacAllister, Tarek Y. El Ahmadieh, Mohamed Osman, Stephen A. Figueroa, Jonathan A. White, Hunt H. Batjer, Daiwai M. Olson
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Surgery
Inadequate Sedation Leads to Unexpected Postoperative Wound Evisceration during a Bedside Endoscopy
Im-kyung Kim, Se Hee Na, Joon Seong Park, Man Ki Ju, Cheung Soo Shin
Acute Crit Care. 2018;33(1):61-63.   Published online February 28, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2017.00297
  • 6,578 View
  • 104 Download
PDF
Basic science and research
The Meaning in the History of Cover of KJCCM
Sung Jin Hong
Acute Crit Care. 2018;33(1):64-64.   Published online February 28, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2018.00101
  • 4,293 View
  • 88 Download
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ACC : Acute and Critical Care