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CPR/Resuscitation
APACHE II Score Immediately after Cardiac Arrest as a Predictor of Good Neurological Outcome in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Patients Receiving Targeted Temperature Management
Sang-Il Kim, Youn-Jung Kim, You-Jin Lee, Seung Mok Ryoo, Chang Hwan Sohn, Dong Woo Seo, Yoon-Seon Lee, Jae Ho Lee, Kyoung Soo Lim, Won Young Kim
Acute Crit Care. 2018;33(2):83-88.   Published online May 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2017.00514
  • 6,464 View
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  • 5 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
This study assessed the association between the initial Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score and good neurological outcome in comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest who received targeted temperature management (TTM).
Methods
Data from survivors of cardiac arrest who received TTM between January 2011 and June 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. The initial APACHE II score was determined using the data immediately collected after return of spontaneous circulation rather than within 24 hours after being admitted to the intensive care unit. Good neurological outcome, defined as Cerebral Performance Category 1 or 2 on day 28, was the primary outcome of this study.
Results
Among 143 survivors of cardiac arrest who received TTM, 62 (43.4%) survived, and 34 (23.8%) exhibited good neurological outcome on day 28. The initial APACHE II score was significantly lower in the patients with good neurological outcome than in those with poor neurological outcome (23.71 ± 4.39 vs. 27.62 ± 6.16, P = 0.001). The predictive ability of the initial APACHE II score for good neurological outcome, assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, was 0.697 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.599 to 0.795; P = 0.001). The initial APACHE II score was associated with good neurological outcome after adjusting for confounders (odds ratio, 0.878; 95% CI, 0.792 to 0.974; P = 0.014).
Conclusions
In the present study, the APACHE II score calculated in the immediate post-cardiac arrest period was associated with good neurological outcome. The initial APACHE II score might be useful for early identification of good neurological outcome.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Prediction performance of scoring systems after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Boldizsár Kiss, Rita Nagy, Tamás Kói, Andrea Harnos, István Ferenc Édes, Pál Ábrahám, Henriette Mészáros, Péter Hegyi, Endre Zima, Jignesh K. Patel
    PLOS ONE.2024; 19(2): e0293704.     CrossRef
  • Predicting the survivals and favorable neurologic outcomes after targeted temperature management by artificial neural networks
    Wei-Ting Chiu, Chen-Chih Chung, Chien-Hua Huang, Yu-san Chien, Chih-Hsin Hsu, Cheng-Hsueh Wu, Chen-Hsu Wang, Hung-Wen Chiu, Lung Chan
    Journal of the Formosan Medical Association.2022; 121(2): 490.     CrossRef
  • Artificial neural network-boosted Cardiac Arrest Survival Post-Resuscitation In-hospital (CASPRI) score accurately predicts outcome in cardiac arrest patients treated with targeted temperature management
    Szu-Yi Chou, Oluwaseun Adebayo Bamodu, Wei-Ting Chiu, Chien-Tai Hong, Lung Chan, Chen-Chih Chung
    Scientific Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Novel Approaches to Risk Stratification of In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest
    Jason J. Yang, Xiao Hu, Noel G. Boyle, Duc H. Do
    Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
Trauma
Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II Score and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score as Predictors for Severe Trauma Patients in the Intensive Care Unit
Min A Lee, Kang Kook Choi, Byungchul Yu, Jae Jeong Park, Youngeun Park, Jihun Gwak, Jungnam Lee, Yang Bin Jeon, Dae Sung Ma, Gil Jae Lee
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2017;32(4):340-346.   Published online November 30, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2017.00255
  • 7,919 View
  • 170 Download
  • 7 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scoring system and the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scoring system are widely used for critically ill patients. We evaluated whether APACHE II score and SOFA score predict the outcome for trauma patients in the intensive care unit (ICU).
Methods
We retrospectively analyzed trauma patients admitted to the ICU in a single trauma center between January 2014 and December 2015. The APACHE II score was figured out based on the data acquired from the first 24 hours of admission; the SOFA score was evaluated based on the first 3 days in the ICU. A total of 241 patients were available for analysis. Injury Severity score, APACHE II score, and SOFA score were evaluated.
Results
The overall survival rate was 83.4%. The non-survival group had a significantly high APACHE II score (24.1 ± 8.1 vs. 12.3 ± 7.2, P < 0.001) and SOFA score (7.7 ± 1.7 vs. 4.3 ± 1.9, P < 0.001) at admission. SOFA score had the highest areas under the curve (0.904). During the first 3 days, SOFA score remained high in the non-survival group. In the non-survival group, cardiovascular system, neurological system, renal system, and coagulation system scores were significantly higher.
Conclusions
In ICU trauma patients, both SOFA and APACHE II scores were good predictors of outcome, with the SOFA score being the most effective. In trauma ICU patients, the trauma scoring system should be complemented, recognizing that multi-organ failure is an important factor for mortality.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Cell-free DNA as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for adult sepsis: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Awirut Charoensappakit, Kritsanawan Sae-khow, Pongpera Rattanaliam, Nuntanuj Vutthikraivit, Monvasi Pecheenbuvan, Suwasin Udomkarnjananun, Asada leelahavanichkul
    Scientific Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of the sequential organ failure assessment score and newly introduced criteria – Traumasis - in traffic collision patients
    Sion Jo, Taeoh Jeong, Boyoung Park
    The American Journal of Emergency Medicine.2022; 51: 98.     CrossRef
  • Predictive value of Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) and Revised Trauma Score (RTS) for the short-term prognosis of emergency trauma patients: a retrospective study
    Zhejun Yu, Feng Xu, Du Chen
    BMJ Open.2021; 11(3): e041882.     CrossRef
  • Risk factors for abdominal surgical site infection after exploratory laparotomy among combat casualties
    Joseph D. Bozzay, Patrick F. Walker, David W. Schechtman, Faraz Shaikh, Laveta Stewart, M. Leigh Carson, David R. Tribble, Carlos J. Rodriguez, Matthew J. Bradley
    Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery.2021; 91(2S): S247.     CrossRef
The Analysis of Prognostic Factors in Patients with Decompensated Liver Cirrhosis Admitted to the Medical Intensive Care Unit
Gil Jae Lee, Jung Nam Lee, Iris Naheah Kim, Keon Kuk Kim, Woon Kee Lee, Jeong Heum Baek, Sang Tae Choi, Won Suk Lee, Byung Chul Yu, Yeon Jeong Park
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2013;28(2):101-107.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2013.28.2.101
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis usually resulted in admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) during hospitalization. When admitted to the ICU, the mortality was high. The aim of this study is to identify multiple prognostic factors for mortality and to analyze the significance of prognostic survival model with each scoring system in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis who was admitted to the ICU.
METHODS
From January 2008 to December 2008, 60 consecutive patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis were admitted in the ICU and retrospectively reviewed. Prognostic models used were Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP), model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), model for end-stage liver disease with incorporation of serum sodium (MELD-Na), acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II, and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA). The predictive prognosis was analyzed using the area under the receiver's operating characteristics curve (AUC).
RESULTS
The median follow up period was 20 months, and ICU mortality was 17% (n = 10). A total of 24 patients (40%) died during the study period. The average survival of five prognostic models was related with the severity of the disease. All of the five systems showed significant differences in the cumulative survival rate, according to the scores on admission, and the MELD-Na had the highest AUC (0.924). Multivariate analysis showed that bilirubin and albumin were significantly related to mortality.
CONCLUSIONS
The CPT, MELD, MELD-Na, APACHE II, and SOFA may predict the prognosis of patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis. The MELD-Na could be a better prognostic predictor than other scoring systems.
Effects of APACHE II Score and Initial Nutritional Status on Prognosis of the Critically Ill Patients
Seohui Ahn, Se Hee Na, Chul Ho Chang, Hyunsun Lim, Duk Chul Lee, Cheung Soo Shin
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2012;27(2):102-107.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2012.27.2.102
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  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Malnutrition is common in hospitalized patients, especially in critically ill patients and affects their mortality and morbidity. However, the correlation between malnutrition and poor outcome is not fully understood. Our hypothesis is that the nutritional effect on the patient's prognosis would differ depending on the severity of the disease.
METHODS
3,758 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) were observed retrospectively. Patients were divided into well, moderate and severe groups, according to their nutritional status as assessed by their serum albumin level and total lymphocyte count (TLC). The severity of the disease was assessed by the Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II score). All patients were followed clinically until discharge or death and ICU days, hospital days, ventilator days, and mortality rates were recorded.
RESULTS
Depending on the definition used, the prevalence of hospital malnutrition is reported to be 68.3%. Hospital days, ICU days, as well as ventilator days of moderate and severe groups were longer than the well group. In patients exhibiting mild severity of disease, moderate and severe malnutrition groups have 3-5 times the mortality rate than the well group.
CONCLUSIONS
Malnutrition affects the prognosis of patients who have an APACHE II score ranging from 4-29 points. Active nutritional support may be more effective for patients with a disease of mild severity.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Effects of a video-based enteral nutrition education program using QR codes for intensive care unit nurses: a quasi-experimental study
    Won Kee Seo, Hyunjung Kim
    Journal of Korean Biological Nursing Science.2024; 26(1): 16.     CrossRef
  • The effect of nutritional supply on clinical outcomes and nutritional status in critically ill patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapy
    Ju Yeun Kim, Ji-Myung Kim, Yuri Kim
    Journal of Nutrition and Health.2015; 48(3): 211.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of nutritional status indicators according to feeding methods in patients with acute stroke
    Sanghee Kim, Youngsoon Byeon
    Nutritional Neuroscience.2014; 17(3): 138.     CrossRef
  • Clinical Significance of Postoperative Prealbumin and Albumin Levels in Critically Ill Patients who Underwent Emergency Surgery for Acute Peritonitis
    Seung Hwan Lee, Ji Young Jang, Jae Gil Lee
    Korean Journal of Critical Care Medicine.2013; 28(4): 247.     CrossRef
  • Nutrition Support in the Intensive Care Unit of 6 Korean Tertiary Teaching Hospitals: A National Multicenter Observational Study
    Song Mi Lee, Seon Hyeung Kim, Yoon Kim, Eunmee Kim, Hee Joon Baek, Seungmin Lee, Hosun Lee, Chul Ho Chang, Cheung Soo Shin
    Korean Journal of Critical Care Medicine.2012; 27(3): 157.     CrossRef
Validation of APACHE II Score and Comparison of the Performance of APACHE II and Adjusted APACHE II Models in a Surgical Intensive Care Unit
Hannnah Lee, Eun Young Choi, Yoon Hee Kim
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2011;26(4):232-237.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2011.26.4.232
  • 2,729 View
  • 53 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The ability to accurately adjust for the severity of illness in outcome studies of critically ill patients is essential for clinical audits and trials. Several studies have been carried out to validate the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE II) score in Korean ICUs. However, few reports have been presented that compare the performance of the APACHE II score and diagnostic category weighted APACHE II models in the surgical ICU population of Korea. The aim of this study was to validate APACHE II and compare the performance of the APACHE II and adjusted APACHE II models for emergency admission in a surgical intensive care unit (SICU) population.
METHODS
A retrospective analysis of the prospective ICU registry was conducted in the SICU between October 2007 and February 2011. Calibration and discrimination were determined by the Hosmer-Lemeshow test and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC) curve from patients.
RESULTS
This study included 854 patients. SICU mortality was 9.4%. For APACHE II and adjusted APACHE II, AUCs were 0.791 and 0.757, respectively. Hosmer and Lemeshow C statistics showed good calibration for APAHCE II and for adjusted APACHE II (p > 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS
The ability of the APACHE II system in predicting group outcome is validated in a surgical ICU population by a receiver operating characteristic curve and logistic regression analysis. Mortality rates predicted using APACHE II exhibited good calibration and moderate discrimination. Diagnostic category weighted adjusted APACHE II did not improve the mortality prediction.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Time-to-surgery paradigms: wait time and surgical outcomes in critically Ill patients who underwent emergency surgery for gastrointestinal perforation
    Junghyun Lee, Chami Im
    BMC Surgery.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Examination II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Scores for Predicting Outcomes of Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Patients Treated with Therapeutic Hypothermia
    Sung Joon Kim, Yong-Su Lim, Jin Seong Cho, Jin Joo Kim, Won Bin Park, Hyuk Jun Yang
    Korean Journal of Critical Care Medicine.2014; 29(4): 288.     CrossRef
Evaluating the Relationship between the Scoring Systems of Intensive Care Units (ICUs) and the Duration of Mechanical Ventilation after Liver Transplantation
Jeong Eun Kim, Sang Hoon Lee, Jong Ho Choi
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2009;24(2):69-74.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2009.24.2.69
  • 2,212 View
  • 20 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Postoperative mechanical ventilation in liver transplant patient has an important role for reducing respiratory complications and multi-organ failure in intensive care unit (ICU). Yet there are no specific indications for predicting the duration of postoperative mechanical ventilation. Thus, we evaluated the correlation between the duration of mechanical ventilation and scoring systems such as the Acute Physiology and Chronic health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, the Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score and the risk index.
METHODS
We retrospectively studied 183 patients who underwent living donor liver transplantation and we divided them into three groups based on the duration of mechanical ventilation: Group 1: <8 hr, Group 2: 8-12 hr and Group 3: >12 hr. We analyzed the correlation coefficients among the duration of mechanical ventilation, the risk index, and the SOFA, APACHE II and MELD scores.
RESULTS
The MELD and preoperative SOFA scores were significantly higher in group 3 (p = 0.003, p = 0.027). The MELD and SOFA scores were correlated with the duration of mechanical ventilation for all the patients (correlation coefficient = 0.22, 0.20, p = 0.003, 0.007, respectively). Yet the APACHE II score shows no correlation.
CONCLUSIONS
We found that the MELD and SOFA scores were correlated with the duration of mechanical ventilation in liver transplant patients. Thus, these scoring systems may be useful to determine the duration of mechanical ventilation.
Comparing the Usefulness of the Initial Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II Score in the Emergency Department (ED) and the Mortality in Emergency Department Sepsis (MEDS) Score for Predicting the Prognosis of Septic Patients Admitt
Chan Young Koh, Young Sik Kim, Tae Yong Shin, Young Rock Ha
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2008;23(2):90-95.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2008.23.2.90
  • 2,670 View
  • 17 Download
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
To determine the prognostic value of the initial APACHE II score in the ED compared with the classic APACHE II score in the ICU and to check the usefulness of the MEDS score together for more rapid risk stratification of septic patients admitted to the ICU via the ED.
METHODS
We prospectively checked the initial APACHE II and MEDS scores of all the patients who had systemic inflammatory response syndrome in the ED and the classic APACHE II scores after admission to the ICU, as well 6 months later. We enrolled the only sepsis cases in the final diagnosis after reviewing the medical records. We evaluated the predictive abilities of the initial APACHE II and MEDS scores compared with the classic APACHE II score.
RESULTS
During 6 months, 58 patients diagnosed with sepsis were enrolled. Twenty-four (41.4%) patients died within 28 days of admission and 34 patients survived. The mortality group had a significantly higher mean classic APACHE II score (19 +/- 6.7 vs. 15 +/- 5.0, p < 0.01) and a higher mean MEDS score (16.67 +/- 2.70 vs. 8.91 +/- 3.11, p < 0.01) than the survivor group. The initial APACHE II score at the ED was not significantly different between the two groups. ROC analysis showed the discriminative power of the MEDS score in predicting mortality was much better than the APACHE II score (areas under the curves of the APACHE II score in the ED and ICU, and the MEDS scores were 0.668, 0.807, and 0.967, respectively; p < 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS
The initial APACHE II score in the ED did not predict mortality better than the classic APACHE II score. However, the MEDS score predicted the poor prognosis of septic patients more rapidly and accurately in the ED than the APACHE II model.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Thrombomodulin is a Strong Predictor of Multiorgan Dysfunction Syndrome in Patients With Sepsis
    Dunja M. Mihajlovic, Dajana F. Lendak, Biljana G. Draskovic, Aleksandra S. Novakov Mikic, Gorana P. Mitic, Tatjana N. Cebovic, Snezana V. Brkic
    Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis.2015; 21(5): 469.     CrossRef
  • Endocan is useful biomarker of survival and severity in sepsis
    Dunja M. Mihajlovic, Dajana F. Lendak, Snezana V. Brkic, Biljana G. Draskovic, Gorana P. Mitic, Aleksandra S. Novakov Mikic, Tatjana N. Cebovic
    Microvascular Research.2014; 93: 92.     CrossRef
  • A Case Study of Metastatic Cholangiocarcinoma with Sepsis who Showed Symptomatic Improvement after Treated with Handayeolso-tang, Fel Tauri, and Antibiotics
    Soo-Min Lee, Seong-Heon Choi, An-Na Song, Ji-Young Lee, Jin Chae, Eu-Hong Jung, Soo-Kyung Lee
    Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine.2013; 25(4): 432.     CrossRef
The Effect of Discharge Decision-Making of the Intensivist on Readmission to the Intensive Care Unit
Dong Woo Han, One Chul Kang, So Young Ban, Shin Ok Koh
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2003;18(2):74-79.
  • 1,609 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Patients readmitted to intensive care unit (ICU) have significantly higher mortality. The role of intensivists to judge when to discharge from ICU may be important. We performed this study to assess the effect of intensivist's discharge decision-making on readmission to ICU. METHODS: Data were collected prospectively from patients admitted to ICUs (group 1). Another data were collected retrospectively from the patients' record (group 2). Discharge of the patients in group 1 were based on intensivist's discharge decision-making but not in group 2. We encouraged deep breathing and expectoration to patients of group 1 at risk of pulmonary complication during ICU stay and used a guideline for making discharge decisions. Readmission cause, length of ICU stay, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) III score, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) score of readmitted patients were evaluated. RESULTS: Readmission rate of group 1 was lower than that of group 2 (p<0.05). The mortality of readmitted patients in each group was higher than that of non-readmitted patients (p<0.05). Respiratory disease was the major cause of readmission. In non-survivors of readmitted patients, APACHE III score on initial discharge and readmission, MODS score on initial admission, discharge and readmission were higher than those of survivors (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Readmission rate was lower when intensivists participated in discharge decision- making. ICU readmission was associated with higher hospital mortality and longer ICU stay. MODS and APACHE III score at first discharge and readmission were significant prognostic factors of the outcome in readmitted patients.
Prognostic Implication of Serial Blood Lactate Concentrations in SIRS Patient
Young Joo Lee, Jong Seok Park, Bong Ki Moon, Hee Jung Wang
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2001;16(2):144-150.
  • 1,582 View
  • 106 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Introduction: Lactic acid in circulating blood should provide an index between balance of oxygen consumption and metabolic rate in sepsis or any state of shock. The purpose of the study was to determine the prognostic power of the lactate, the time factor of the blood lactate levels between survivors and non-survivors and the correlation between APACHE III score and blood lactate level in SIRS patients.
METHOD
The study was performed on 99 patients over 16 years old who were admitted to the SICU with the criteria of SIRS. The blood lactate concentrations were assayed with arterial blood drawn in intervals ranging from 4 to 24 hours and the APACHE III scoring was done in the first 24 hours of SICU admission and daily until discharge or death for 2 weeks. The highest lactate level of the day was recorded. They were divided into two groups, survivors (n=61) and non-survivors (n=38), according to the outcome.
RESULT
There were significant difference of the first day (D1) as well as peak lactate level between the survivors and the non-survivors (3.02 3.05 vs 7.41 4.78, 3.24 2.70 vs 7.82 4.88 mmol/L). Significant difference of the lactate as well as APACHE III were identified between the survivors and the non-survivors during a 14-days of observation period. Significant correlations were shown between lactate and APACHE III while the study was being conducted. The peak lactate presented superior to the D1 lactate in mortality prediction.
CONCLUSION
Blood lactate concentration could be used as a prognostic index as well as APACHE III score. Serial blood lactate concentration assays are necessary to predict the outcome.
Statistical Analysis of the Patients in the ICU by Using the APACHE II Scoring System
Young Joo Lee, Keum Hee Chung, Hyun Jue Gill, Kyung Jin Lee, Sang Hyun Kim, Chang Whan Cho, Young Suk Lee
Korean J Crit Care Med. 1998;13(1):73-78.
  • 1,675 View
  • 45 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Introduction: The APACHE II scoring system has been promulgated as a useful tool in the assessment of the severity of disease and prognosis for patients with acute-on-chronic medical conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the statistical association of APACHE II score and multiple variables in ICU patients.
METHODS
Prospective data on 803 ICU patients for validation of the APACHE II system were analysed. We evaluated the relationship between APACHE II scores within the first 24 hours of ICU admission and multiple variables that included days in the ICU, mortality rate and age. The patients were classified as operation and nonoperation, survival and nonsurvival groups.
RESULT
1) The APACHE II score was significantly higher in the 153 nonsurvivals (23.97+/-10.98) than in the 651 survivals (11.51+/-6.14) (p<0.05). 2) The mean APACHE II score of the nonoperation group (14.52+/-9.29) was significantly higher than operation group (12.40+/-7.30) (p<0.05). 3) The overall mortality rate was 17.8%. 4) All patients with an APACHE II score over 40 died.
CONCLUSION
The APACHE II score is statistically related with the mortality of critically ill patients.

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