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13 "out-of-hospital cardiac arrest"
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Original Article
CPR/Resuscitation
Lower limb muscle matters in patients with hypoxic brain injury following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest
Dong-Hyun Jang, Seung Min Park, Dong Keon Lee, Dong Won Kim, Chang Woo Im, You Hwan Jo, Kui Ja Lee
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(1):104-112.   Published online February 27, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.01389
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  • 79 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
There are conflicting results regarding the association between body mass index and the prognosis of cardiac arrest patients. We investigated the association of the composition and distribution of muscle and fat with neurologic outcomes at hospital discharge in successfully resuscitated out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients. Methods: This prospective, single-centre, observational study involved adult OHCA patients, conducted between April 2019 and June 2021. The ratio of total skeletal muscle, upper limb muscle, lower limb muscle, and total fat to body weight was measured using InBody S10, a bioimpedance analyser, after achieving the return of spontaneous circulation. Restricted cubic spline curves with four knots were used to examine the relationship between total skeletal muscle, upper limb muscle, and lower limb muscle relative to total body weight and neurologic outcome at discharge. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to assess an independent association. Results: A total of 66 patients were enrolled in the study. The proportion of total muscle and lower limb muscle positively correlated with the possibility of having a good neurologic outcome. The proportion of lower limb muscle showed an independent association in the multivariable analysis (adjusted odds ratio, 2.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–13.98), and its optimal cut-off value calculated through receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was 23.1%, which can predict a good neurological outcome. Conclusions: A higher proportion of lower limb muscle to body weight was independently associated with the probability of having a good neurologic outcome in OHCA patients.
Review Articles
CPR/Resuscitation
Role of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in adults
Hongsun Kim, Yang Hyun Cho
Acute Crit Care. 2020;35(1):1-9.   Published online February 29, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2020.00080
  • 10,023 View
  • 370 Download
  • 21 Web of Science
  • 23 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) has been performed with increasing frequency worldwide to improve the low survival rate of conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CCPR). Several studies have shown that among patients who experience in-hospital cardiac arrest, better survival outcomes and neurological outcomes can be expected after ECPR than after CCPR. However, studies have not clearly shown a short-term survival benefit of ECPR for patients who experience out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Favorable outcomes are associated with a shorter low-flow time, an initial shockable rhythm, lower serum lactate levels, higher blood pH, and a lower Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score. Indications for ECPR include young age, witnessed arrest with bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation, an initial shockable rhythm, correctable causes such as a cardiac etiology, and no return of spontaneous circulation within 10–20 minutes of CCPR. ECPR is a complex intervention that requires a highly trained team, specialized equipment, and multidisciplinary support within a healthcare system, and it has the risk of several life-threatening complications. Therefore, physicians should carefully select patients for ECPR who can gain the most benefit, instead of applying ECPR indiscriminately.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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  • Vascular complications based on mode of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
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  • Efficacy of a temporary CentriMag ventricular assist device in acute fulminant myocarditis patients revived with extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation
    Ying-Hsiang Wang, Chien-Sung Tsai, Jia-Lin Chen, Yi-Ting Tsai, Chih-Yuan Lin, Hsiang-Yu Yang, Po-Shun Hsu
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  • Anticoagulation Strategies during Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: A Narrative Review
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    Abdelaziz Farhat, Ryan Ruiyang Ling, Christopher L. Jenks, Wynne Hsing Poon, Isabelle Xiaorui Yang, Xilong Li, Yulun Liu, Cindy Darnell-Bowens, Kollengode Ramanathan, Ravi R. Thiagarajan, Lakshmi Raman
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  • Prediction of successful weaning off ECMO support after ECPR: Is pulse pressure crucial for success?
    Ilija Djordjevic, Thorsten Wahlers
    Journal of Cardiac Surgery.2021; 36(8): 2751.     CrossRef
  • Impact of age on the outcomes of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation: analysis using inverse probability of treatment weighting
    Young Su Kim, Yang Hyun Cho, Jeong Hoon Yang, Ji-Hyuk Yang, Suryeun Chung, Gee Young Suh, Kiick Sung
    European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery.2021; 60(6): 1318.     CrossRef
  • Features of Patients Receiving Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Relative to Cardiogenic Shock Onset: A Single-Centre Experience
    Dong-Geum Shin, Sang-Deock Shin, Donghoon Han, Min-Kyung Kang, Seung-Hun Lee, Jihoon Kim, Jung-Rae Cho, Kunil Kim, Seonghoon Choi, Namho Lee
    Medicina.2021; 57(9): 886.     CrossRef
  • Critical care management of pulmonary arterial hypertension in pregnancy: the pre-, peri- and post-partum stages
    Vorakamol Phoophiboon, Monvasi Pachinburavan, Nicha Ruamsap, Natthawan Sanguanwong, Nattapong Jaimchariyatam
    Acute and Critical Care.2021; 36(4): 286.     CrossRef
  • Brain natriuretic peptide levels predict 6-month mortality in patients with cardiogenic shock who were weaned off extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
    Hyoung Soo Kim, Kyu Jin Lee, Sang Ook Ha, Sang Jin Han, Kyoung-Ha Park, Sun Hee Lee, Yong Il Hwang, Seung Hun Jang, Sunghoon Park
    Medicine.2020; 99(29): e21272.     CrossRef
  • Role and Prognosis of Extracorporeal Life Support in Patients Who Develop Cardiac Arrest during or after Office-Based Cosmetic Surgery
    Seong Soon Kwon, Byoung-Won Park, Min-Ho Lee, Duk Won Bang, Min-Su Hyon, Won-Ho Chang, Hong Chul Oh, Young Woo Park
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CPR/Resuscitation
Management of post-cardiac arrest syndrome
Youngjoon Kang
Acute Crit Care. 2019;34(3):173-178.   Published online August 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2019.00654
  • 34,347 View
  • 2,177 Download
  • 30 Web of Science
  • 33 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Post-cardiac arrest syndrome is a complex and critical issue in resuscitated patients undergone cardiac arrest. Ischemic-reperfusion injury occurs in multiple organs due to the return of spontaneous circulation. Bundle of management practicies are required for post-cardiac arrest care. Early invasive coronary angiography should be considered to identify and treat coronary artery obstructive disease. Vasopressors such as norepinephrine and dobutamine are the first-line treatment for shock. Maintainance of oxyhemoglobin saturation greater than 94% but less than 100% is recommended to avoid fatality. Target temperature therapeutic hypothermia helps to resuscitated patients. Strict temperature control is required and is maintained with the help of cooling devices and monitoring the core temperature. Montorings include electrocardiogram, oxymetry, capnography, and electroencephalography (EEG) along with blood pressue, temprature, and vital signs. Seizure should be treated if EEG shows evidence of seizure or epileptiform activity. Clinical neurologic examination and magnetic resonance imaging are considered to predict neurological outcome. Glycemic control and metabolic management are favorable for a good neurological outcome. Recovery from acute kidney injury is essential for survival and a good neurological outcome.

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Original Articles
CPR/Resuscitation
APACHE II Score Immediately after Cardiac Arrest as a Predictor of Good Neurological Outcome in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Patients Receiving Targeted Temperature Management
Sang-Il Kim, Youn-Jung Kim, You-Jin Lee, Seung Mok Ryoo, Chang Hwan Sohn, Dong Woo Seo, Yoon-Seon Lee, Jae Ho Lee, Kyoung Soo Lim, Won Young Kim
Acute Crit Care. 2018;33(2):83-88.   Published online May 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2017.00514
  • 6,492 View
  • 99 Download
  • 5 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
This study assessed the association between the initial Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score and good neurological outcome in comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest who received targeted temperature management (TTM).
Methods
Data from survivors of cardiac arrest who received TTM between January 2011 and June 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. The initial APACHE II score was determined using the data immediately collected after return of spontaneous circulation rather than within 24 hours after being admitted to the intensive care unit. Good neurological outcome, defined as Cerebral Performance Category 1 or 2 on day 28, was the primary outcome of this study.
Results
Among 143 survivors of cardiac arrest who received TTM, 62 (43.4%) survived, and 34 (23.8%) exhibited good neurological outcome on day 28. The initial APACHE II score was significantly lower in the patients with good neurological outcome than in those with poor neurological outcome (23.71 ± 4.39 vs. 27.62 ± 6.16, P = 0.001). The predictive ability of the initial APACHE II score for good neurological outcome, assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, was 0.697 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.599 to 0.795; P = 0.001). The initial APACHE II score was associated with good neurological outcome after adjusting for confounders (odds ratio, 0.878; 95% CI, 0.792 to 0.974; P = 0.014).
Conclusions
In the present study, the APACHE II score calculated in the immediate post-cardiac arrest period was associated with good neurological outcome. The initial APACHE II score might be useful for early identification of good neurological outcome.

Citations

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  • Prediction performance of scoring systems after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Boldizsár Kiss, Rita Nagy, Tamás Kói, Andrea Harnos, István Ferenc Édes, Pál Ábrahám, Henriette Mészáros, Péter Hegyi, Endre Zima, Jignesh K. Patel
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Cardiology/Emergency
Moderate to Severe Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Related to Short-term Mortality of Patients with Post-cardiac Arrest Syndrome after Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest
Kyoung Jeen Min, Jin Joo Kim, In Cheol Hwang, Jae Hyuk Woo, Yong Su Lim, Hyuk Jun Yang, Keun Lee
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2016;31(4):342-350.   Published online November 30, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2016.00570
Correction in: Acute Crit Care 2017;32(1):88
  • 9,028 View
  • 115 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and mortality and neurologic outcomes with post-cardiac arrest syndrome (PCAS) after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA).
Methods
Patients with PCAS after OHCA admitted to the intensive care unit between January 2014 and December 2015 were analyzed retrospectively.
Results
A total of 104 patients were enrolled in this study. The mean age was 54.4 ± 15.3 years, and 75 of the patients were male (72.1%). Arrest with a cardiac origin was found in 55 (52.9%). LVEF < 45%, 45-55%, and > 55% was measured in 39 (37.5%), 18 (17.3%), and 47 (45.2%) of patients, respectively. In multivariate analysis, severe LV dysfunction (LVEF < 45%) was significantly related to 7-day mortality (odds ratio 3.02, 95% Confidence Interval 1.01-9.0, p-value 0.047).
Conclusions
In this study, moderate to severe LVEF within 48 hours after return of spontaneous circulation was significantly related to 7-day short-term mortality in patients with PCAS after OHCA. Clinicians should actively treat myocardial dysfunction, and further studies are needed.
Emergency/Neurology
Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients with Favorable Outcomes after Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: Many Have Encephalopathy Even with a Good Cerebral Performance Category Score
Woo Sung Choi, Jin Joo Kim, Hyuk Jun Yang
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2015;30(4):265-271.   Published online November 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2015.30.4.265
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate and analyze the brain magnetic resonance imaging (B-MRI) findings of patients with a favorable neurological outcome following cerebral performance category (CPC) after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) at single university hospital emergency center.
Methods
Patients with return of spontaneous circulation (> 24 h) after OHCA who were older than 16 years of age and who had been admitted to the emergency intensive care unit (EICU) for over a 57-month period between July 2007 and March 2012 and survived with a favorable neurological outcome were enrolled. B-MRI was taken after recovery of their mental status.
Results
Fifty-two patients among the 305 admitted patients had a good CPC, and 33 patients’ B-MRI were analyzed (CPC 1: 26 patients, CPC 2: 7 patients). Among these, 18 (54.5%) patients had a normal finding on B-MRI. On the other hand, ischemia/infarction/microangiopathy compatible with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) were found on various brain areas including subcortical white matter (7/13), cerebral cortex, central semiovlae, basal ganglia, putamen, periventricular white matter, and cerebellum.
Conclusions
Survivors with a favorable neurological outcome from OHCA showed HIE on B-MRI, especially all of the patients with a CPC 2. More detail neurologic category including brain imaging would be needed to categorize patients with favorable outcome after OHCA.
Case Report
Cardiology
Cardiac Arrest due to Recurrent Ventricular Fibrillation Triggered by Unifocal Ventricular Premature Complexes in a Silent Myocardial Infarction
Dong Hyun Lee, Seul Lee, Hyo Jin Jung, Soo Jin Kim, Jeong Min Seo, Jae Hyuk Choi, Jong Sung Park
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2014;29(4):331-335.   Published online November 30, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2014.29.4.331
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AbstractAbstract PDF
A 51-year-old male patient was referred for a sudden out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Upon arrival, he was conscious and had no chest pain complaints. There was no abnormality in initial electrocardiographic and echocardiographic examinations. However, episodes of recurrent ventricular fibrillation (VF) were documented on rhythm monitoring. Each VF episode was triggered by an isolated monomorphic ventricular premature complex (VPC). Suspecting idiopathic VF, emergency radiofrequency catheter ablation was planned for the VPCs. However, when coronary angiography was performed to exclude silent ischemia, the results showed a total occlusion of the right coronary artery posterolateral branch, which is thought to supply the left ventricular inferior and septal wall. After successful reperfusion, VF episodes and the triggering VPCs disappeared. We are documenting this case to emphasize the potential for silent myocardial infarction to cause out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest even in a patient without any symptom or sign of acute coronary syndrome.
Original Articles
Hematology/Emergency
Change in Red Cell Distribution Width as Predictor of Death and Neurologic Outcome in Patients Treated with Therapeutic Hypothermia after Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest
Seongtak Kim, Jinseong Cho, Yongsu Lim, Jinjoo Kim, Hyukjun Yang, Gun Lee
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2014;29(4):313-319.   Published online November 30, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2014.29.4.313
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The prognostic significance of change in red cell distribution width (RDW) during hospital stays in patients treated with therapeutic hypothermia (TH) after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) was investigated.
METHODS
Patients treated with TH after OHCA between January 2009 and August 2013 were reviewed. Patients with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) were assessed according to Utstein Style. Hematologic variables including RDW, hematocrit, white blood cell count, and platelets were also obtained. RDW changes during the 72 hours after ROSC were categorized into five groups as follows: Group 1 (-0.8-0.1%), Group 2 (0.2-0.3%), Group 3 (0.4-0.5%), Group 4 (0.6-0.8%), and Group 5 (>0.8%).
RESULTS
A total of 218 patients were enrolled in the study. RDW changes during the 72 hours after ROSC in Group 4 (HR 3.56, 95% CI 1.25-10.20) and Group 5 (HR 5.07, 95% CI 1.73-14.89) were associated with a statistically significant difference in one-month mortality. RDW changes were associated with statistically significant differences in neurologic outcome at 6 months after ROSC (Group 3 [HR 2.45, 95% CI 1.17-5.14], Group 4 [HR 2.79, 95% CI 1.33-5.84], Group 5 [HR 3.50, 95% CI 1.35-7.41]). Other significant variables were location of arrest, cause of arrest, serum albumin, and advanced cardiac life support time.
CONCLUSIONS
RDW change during the 72 hours after ROSC is a predictor of mortality and neurologic outcome in patients treated with TH after OHCA.
Neurology/Emergency
Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Examination II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Scores for Predicting Outcomes of Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Patients Treated with Therapeutic Hypothermia
Sung Joon Kim, Yong Su Lim, Jin Seong Cho, Jin Joo Kim, Won Bin Park, Hyuk Jun Yang
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2014;29(4):288-296.   Published online November 30, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2014.29.4.288
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between acute physiologic and chronic health examination (APACHE) II and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores and outcomes of post-cardiac arrest patients treated with therapeutic hypothermia (TH).
METHODS
Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survivors treated with TH between January 2010 and December 2012 were retrospectively evaluated. We captured all components of the APACHE II and SOFA scores over the first 48 hours after intensive care unit (ICU) admission (0 h). The primary outcome measure was in-hospital mortality and the secondary outcome measure was neurologic outcomes at the time of hospital discharge. Receiver-operating characteristic and logistic regression analysis were used to determine the predictability of outcomes with serial APACHE II and SOFA scores.
RESULTS
A total of 138 patients were enrolled in this study. The area under the curve (AUC) for APACHE II scores at 0 h for predicting in-hospital mortality and poor neurologic outcomes (cerebral performance category: 3-5) was more than 0.7, and for SOFA scores from 0 h to 48 h the AUC was less than 0.7. Odds ratios used to determine associations between APACHE II scores from 0 h to 48 h and in-hospital mortality were 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.23), 1.13 (95% CI, 1.04-1.23), and 1.18 (95% CI, 1.07-1.30).
CONCLUSIONS
APACHE II, but not SOFA score, at the time of ICU admission is a modest predictor of in-hospital mortality and poor neurologic outcomes at the time of hospital discharge for patients who have undergone TH after return of spontaneous circulation following OHCA.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Multiorgan failure in patients after out of hospital resuscitation: a retrospective single center study
    Yaacov Hasin, Yigal Helviz, Sharon Einav
    Internal and Emergency Medicine.2024; 19(1): 159.     CrossRef
Implementation of Therapeutic Hypothermia after Pediatric Out-of Hospital Cardiac Arrest in One Tertiary Emergency Center
Woo Jin Kim, Jin Joo Kim, Jae Ho Jang, Sung Youl Hyun, Hyuk Jun Yang, Gun Lee
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2013;28(1):25-32.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2013.28.1.25
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  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Cardiac arrest in infants and children is rare than adults yet, it is critical. The efficacy and feasibility of therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest in adults is proved through many studies however, there are few data on pediatric out-of hospital cardiac arrest. We analyzed several variables in pediatric therapeutic hypothermia after out-of hospital cardiac arrest.
METHODS
Infants and children (1 to 17 years old), who were admitted to our emergency intensive care units following the return of spontaneous circulation after out-of hospital cardiac arrest from Jan 2008 to Apr 2012, were included in this study. Basal patients' characteristics and variables about therapeutic hypothermia were analyzed.
RESULTS
A total of seventy-six patients visited our emergency center after a pediatric cardiac arrest during the study period. Among this, sixty-three patients received pediatric advanced life support, twenty one patients were admitted to intensive care units and nine patients received therapeutic hypothermia. Overall, the survival discharge was 7.9% (5 of 63). Among the admitted patients, 3 patients (14.3%) had a good Cerebral Performance Category (CPC). Two patients received endovascular cooling and seven patients received surface cooling. The mean time from the induction of therapeutic hypothermia to reaching the temperature with in the therapeutic range was 193.9 minutes. There were no critical adverse events during induction, maintenance and the rewarming period of therapeutic hypothermia.
CONCLUSIONS
Therapeutic hypothermia after pediatric out-of hospital cardiac arrest was performed safely and effectively in one emergency center. The standardized pediatric therapeutic hypothermia protocol should be established in order to be used widely in pediatric intensive care units. Further, larger studies are needed on the subject of pediatric therapeutic hypothermia.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Epidemiological and Survival Trends of Pediatric Cardiac Arrests in Emergency Departments in Korea: A Cross-sectional, Nationwide Report
    Jae Yun Ahn, Mi Jin Lee, Hyun Kim, Han Deok Yoon, Hye Young Jang
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2015; 30(9): 1354.     CrossRef
The Frequency of Defibrillation Related to the Survival Rate and Neurological Outcome in Patients Surviving from Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest
Sung Yeol Hyun, Jae Ho Jang, Jin Joo Kim, Hyuk Jun Yang, Woo Jin Kim
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2012;27(4):263-268.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2012.27.4.263
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Early defibrillation is the treatment of choice in out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) with initial shockable rhythms. However, the relationship between the frequency of defibrillation and neurological outcome was not clear. In this study, the frequency of defibrillation and other factors related to neurological outcome were investigated.
METHODS
Records of 255 adult patients, who were admitted to the hospital after resuscitation from OHCA between November 2008 and March 2012, were retrospectively reviewed. 6 months after the return of spontaneous circulation, patients were divided into two groups based on the cerebral performance category (CPC) score for neurologic prognosis. The frequency of defibrillation during resuscitation and other variables were analyzed between the two groups.
RESULTS
In the study group, initial rhythm was divided into two groups, non shockable rhythm (200, 78.4%) and shockable rhythm (55, 21.6%). The frequency of 1-7 defibrillations was significantly associated with good neurological outcome (OR 3.05, 95% CI 1.328-6.850). In addition, shockable initial rhythm (OR 4.520, 95% CI 1.953-10.459), arrest caused cardiac origin (OR 2.945, 95% CI 1.334-6.500), time to BLS (OR 1.139, 95% CI 1.033-1.256) and lower APACHII score (OR 1.095, 95% CI 1.026-1.169), which were associated with good neurological outcomes, independently.
CONCLUSIONS
In those patients who survived from OHCA, adequate defibrillation was important to improve the neurological outcome, whether the initial rhythm was shockable or not. Frequency of 1-7 times defibrillation was associated with good neurological outcome.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Factors Influencing Survival of Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest with Cardiac Etiology
    Su-Yeon Jeong, Chul-Woung Kim, Sung-Ok Hong
    Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society.2016; 17(2): 560.     CrossRef
Men Associated with Good Prognosis after Return of Spontaneous Circulation after Out-of Hospital Cardiac Arrest: a Retrospective Study in One Emergency Center
Se Jong Oh, Jin Joo Kim, Sung Youn Hwang, Sung Youl Hyun, Hyuk Jun Yang, Gun Lee
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2012;27(1):24-28.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2012.27.1.24
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The aim of this study was to analyze the gender factors associated with good or bad prognosis after return of spontaneous circulation after out-of hospital cardiac arrest.
METHODS
The patients admitted to the intensive care unit after successful resuscitation after out-of hospital cardiac arrest were retrospectively identified and evaluated. Thirty days mortality after admission, and neurologic outcome at 6 months after hospital discharge (cerebral performance category [CPC]) were evaluated.
RESULTS
One hundred forty-two patients were evaluated in this study; there were 101 males (71.1%). The median age was 52 years old (43-63). Thirty days after admission, 85 patients (59.9%) survived, 40 patients had a good neurologic outcome (CPC 1-2). The factors associated 30 days mortality were cause of arrest (non-cardiac, p = 0.03), lactate in emergency department (p = 0.05) and the factors associated with good neurologic outcome were males (p = 0.007), young age (p = 0.01), body weight and height (p = 0.001), cause of death (cardiac, p = 0.000). Alcohols and smoking were not associated with mortality and neurologic outcome. In multiple logistic regression analysis, men had a 8-fold increased good neurologic outcome (CPC 1-2) (odds ratio [OR] 8.038, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.079-59.903). Other factors associated with good neurologic outcome were cardiac cause of death (OR 5.523, 95% CI 1.562-19.533) and young age (OR 1.055, 95% CI 1.009-1.103).
CONCLUSIONS
Men had a good neurologic outcome after return of spontaneous circulation after out-of hospital cardiac arrest in one emergency center. Other additional factors including gonadal hormones should be evaluated.
A Retrospective Study about Characteristics of Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest Caused by Non-traumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Min Seob Sim, Ki Dong Sung, Mun Ju Kang, Ji Ung Na, Tae Gun Shin, Ik Joon Jo, Hyoung Gon Song, Keun Jeong Song, Yeon Kwon Jeong
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2011;26(3):151-156.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2011.26.3.151
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a fatal disease relatively common in the East Asian population. It can lead to cardiac arrest in several pathologic processes. We attempted to elucidate the characteristics of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest caused by non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage.
METHODS
We conducted a retrospective, observational study in which patients who had visited Samsung medical center emergency room for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest from January, 1999 to December 2008 were enrolled. A total of 218 OHCA patients who had achieved ROSC were investigated by review of medical charts. Excluding those who had worn trauma, we analyzed 22 patients who had been diagnosed for SAH by brain non-contrast CT scan.
RESULTS
Median age of aneurysmal SAH-induced OHCA patients was 61 (IQR 54-67) years. Fourteen patients (64%) were female and 15 patients (68%) were witnessed. Besides, 7 patients (32%) had complained of headache before collapse. We also found 11 patients (50%) had been diagnosed with hypertension previously. All of them showed unshockable rhythm (asystole 60%, PEA 40%) initially. Their median duration of ACLS was 10 minutes. Majority of patients died within 24 hours and survivors showed poor neurologic outcome.
CONCLUSIONS
Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a relatively uncommon cause of cardiac arrest, and the outcome of OHCA induced by SAH is very poor. However, emergency physicians have to consider the possibility of SAH when trying to determine the cause of arrest, especially when treating patients who have the characteristics described above.

ACC : Acute and Critical Care