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Original Article
Meta-analysis
Comparison of safety and efficacy between therapeutic or intermediate versus prophylactic anticoagulation for thrombosis in COVID-19 patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Hyeon-Jeong Lee, Hye Jin Jang, Won-Il Choi, Joonsung Joh, Junghyun Kim, Jungeun Park, Miyoung Choi
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(2):160-171.   Published online May 25, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.01424
Correction in: Acute Crit Care 2023;38(4):516
  • 2,517 View
  • 173 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections often have macrovascular or microvascular thrombosis and inflammation, which are known to be associated with a poor prognosis. Heparin has been hypothesized that administration of heparin with treatment dose rather than prophylactic dose for prevention of deep vein thrombosis in COVID-19 patients. Methods: Studies comparing therapeutic or intermediate anticoagulation with prophylactic anticoagulation in COVID-19 patients were eligible. Mortality, thromboembolic events, and bleeding were the primary outcomes. PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and KMbase were searched up to July 2021. A meta-analysis was performed using random-effect model. Subgroup analysis was conducted according to disease severity. Results: Six randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with 4,678 patients and four cohort studies with 1,080 patients were included in this review. In the RCTs, the therapeutic or intermediate anticoagulation was associated with significant reductions in the occurrence of thromboembolic events (5 studies, n=4,664; relative risk [RR], 0.72; P=0.01), and a significant increase in bleeding events (5 studies, n=4,667; RR, 1.88; P=0.004). In the moderate patients, therapeutic or intermediate anticoagulation was more beneficial than prophylactic anticoagulation in terms of thromboembolic events, but showed significantly higher bleeding events. In the severe patients, the incidence of thromboembolic and bleeding events in the therapeutic or intermediate. Conclusions: The study findings suggest that prophylactic anticoagulant treatment should be used in patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 infection groups. Further studies are needed to determine more individualized anticoagulation guidance for all COVID-19 patients.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Community Pharmacy as a Study Center for the Epidemiological Analysis of the Population Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2: Evaluation of Vaccine Safety and Pharmaceutical Service
    Jacopo Raffaele Dibenedetto, Michela Cetrone, Marina Antonacci, Domenico Pio Cannone, Stefania Antonacci, Pasquale Bratta, Francesco Leonetti, Domenico Tricarico
    Pharmacy.2024; 12(1): 16.     CrossRef
  • Specific and Non-specific Aspects and Future Challenges of ICU Care Among COVID-19 Patients with Obesity: A Narrative Review
    Alexandra Beurton, Emma J. Kooistra, Audrey De Jong, Helmut Schiffl, Mercedes Jourdain, Bruno Garcia, Damien Vimpère, Samir Jaber, Peter Pickkers, Laurent Papazian
    Current Obesity Reports.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Case Reports
Toxicology
Unexpected Multiple Organ Infarctions in a Poisoned Patient
Sung-Wook Park, Sang-Kyoon Han, Seok-Ran Yeom, Soon-Chang Park, Sung-Hwa Lee
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2015;30(3):227-230.   Published online August 31, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2015.30.3.227
  • 5,165 View
  • 49 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Predisposing factors for venous thrombosis can be identified in the majority of patients with established venous thromboembolism (VTE). However, an obvious precipitant may not be identified during the initial evaluation of such patients. In the present case, a 47-year-old female presented to the emergency department of our hospital after ingesting multiple drugs. She had no VTE-related risk factors or previous episodes, nor any family history of VTE. After admission to the intensive care unit sudden hypoxemia developed, and during the evaluation cerebral, renal, and splenic infarctions with pulmonary embolisms were diagnosed. However, the sources of the emboli could not be identified by transthoracic echocardiography or computed tomography angiography. Protein C deficiency was identified several days later. We recommend that hypercoagulable states be taken into consideration, especially when unexplained thromboembolic events develop in multiple or unusual venous sites.
Cardiology
Thrombosis in the Left Ventricle after Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Implantation: A Rare Cause of Systemic Thromboembolism
Hee Chan Jung, Woo Baek Chung, Man Young Lee
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2014;29(1):27-31.   Published online February 28, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2014.29.1.27
  • 5,681 View
  • 74 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
This report describes a case of systemic thromboembolism caused by left ventricular (LV) thrombosis that developed after placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). A 27-year-old male patient was diagnosed with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and ventricular tachycardia, and underwent ICD implantation for the primary prevention of sudden cardiac death. Two weeks after ICD implantation, the patient experienced renal infarction. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a mobile thrombus at the LV apex, and automated function imaging demonstrated deteriorated LV function after ICD implantation. The RV was not placed by ICD and the mechanical force which was occurred by ICD that led to induced dyssynchronous motion of the LV apex may have resulted in a systemic thromboembolism.
Unexpected Intra-operative Pulmonary Thromboemolism during Elective Mastoidectomy: A Case Report
Hyun Jeong Kwak, Hee Yeon Park, Hong Soon Kim, Sung Ho Choi, Kyung Cheon Lee
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2009;24(3):160-163.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2009.24.3.160
  • 2,364 View
  • 15 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
We report on a 45-year-old patient who sustained an intra-operative pulmonary thromboembolism during elective mastoidectomy under general anesthesia. At the end of surgery, the patient developed hemodynamic compromise and exhibited T wave inversion on electrocardiogram. Echocardiography showed an echogenic mass in the right pulmonary artery and pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary thromboembolism is rare in the field of otolaryngology and head and neck surgery; however, it may develop, resulting in a fatal outcome. It is thus important to establish the diagnosis early and prevent such serious complications.
Management of Pulmonary Thromboembolism with Inferior Vena Cava Filter: A Case Report
Yeon Jang, Yun Sun Chin, Hyun Suk Jung, Ho Kyung Song
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2008;23(2):111-114.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2008.23.2.111
  • 2,152 View
  • 12 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
We managed a case in which an inferior vena cava filter was inserted for a pulmonary thromboembolism that occurred during general anesthesia. A 71-year-old woman was prepped for reduction of a distal femur fracture and arthroplastic surgery. Her initial vital signs were stable, but the end-tidal CO2 and SaO2 were decreased gradually after application of the tourniquet for surgery. Because of impaired ventricular wall motion and a dilated inferior vena cava on echocardiogram, we suspected a pulmonary thromboembolism. Thus, we inserted an inferior vena cava filter percutaneously under propofol sedation in the Radiology Department. In addition to ventilatory support and hemodynamic management, heparin was administered as anticoagulant therapy postoperatively in the intensive care unit. Multiple thrombi in the pulmonary artery were confirmed on chest CT. On the 4th postoperative day, she was transferred to the general ward without any complications.
Successful Application of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for 3 Patients in Medical Intensive Care Unit: Case Report
Hye Yun Park, Eun Hae Kang, Hyo Kyoung Choi, Gee Young Suh, O Jung Kwon, Kiick Sung, Young Tak Lee
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2007;22(2):91-95.
  • 2,329 View
  • 101 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a life-sustaining salvage therapy applied to the patient with acute heart failure or respiratory failure which is considered curable, but uncorrectable by conventional means. Recently, accumulating data has shown the survival benefit of ECMO in patients with acute fatal cardiopulmonary decompensation. Here, we report a series of cases of successful ECMO treatment in patients with acute cardiopulmonary insufficiency. Case 1: A patient with progressive respiratory failure on mechanical ventilation after pneumonectomy was managed satisfactorily using a veno-venous ECMO. Case 2: A veno-arterial ECMO was used to support a patient with vasopressor refractory septic shock. After 5 days of treatment, the patient was successfully weaned from ECMO. Case 3: A patient in cardiac arrest after the orthopedic surgery was resuscitated using a veno-arterial ECMO. Pulmonary angiography on ECMO revealed massive pulmonary thromboembolism and embolectomy was thoroughly performed under the support of ECMO.
Use of Femorofemoral Bypass for Life Saving before the Emergency Replacement of Thrombotic Prosthetic Mitral Valve
Il Woo Shin, Hyoung Chan Cho, Wan Soo Choi, Woo Chang Yang, Hyun Keun Lee, Young Kyun Chung
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2000;15(1):47-51.
  • 1,556 View
  • 7 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Mechanical valves have generally good hemodynamic function and indefinite durability, but they have a higher thromboembolic potential and thus a requirement for permanent anticoagulation, because thrombotic occlusion is a potentially fatal complication of heart valve replacement surgery. We had experienced mitral valve replacement because of thrombosis around the replaced prosthetic valve. The patient's mechanical prosthetic valve was acutely obstructed by thrombosis, and it was a life threatening condition. We performed partial bypass through femorofemoral bypass for life saving. Femorofemoral bypass improved oxygenation and cardiovascular stability, and mitral valve replacement was successfully performed without complication.
Delayed Development of Pulmonary Embolism after Total Hip Replacement: A case report
Hyun Kyo Lim, Young Bok Lee, Kwang Ho Lee, Chun Gyung Kim, Kyoung Min Lee, Chong Kweon Chung
Korean J Crit Care Med. 1998;13(2):239-242.
  • 1,557 View
  • 7 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Though anticoagulant therapy has been shown to improve outcomes dramatically, pulmonary embolism is a potentially fatal disease. A 82 years old female underwent elective operation for left femur neck fracture under general anesthesia. At the twenty-two postoperative days, she suddenly developed cyanosis with hypotension. She was transferred to intensive care unit and pulmonary embolism was diagnosed by pulmonary perfusion scan and echocardiography. Despite of diagnosis and treatment of pulmonaly embolism, she expired 29 hours after onset of symptom.

ACC : Acute and Critical Care