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Volume 34 (3); August 2019
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Review Article
CPR/Resuscitation
Management of post-cardiac arrest syndrome
Youngjoon Kang
Acute Crit Care. 2019;34(3):173-178.   Published online August 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2019.00654
  • 33,864 View
  • 2,161 Download
  • 30 Web of Science
  • 33 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Post-cardiac arrest syndrome is a complex and critical issue in resuscitated patients undergone cardiac arrest. Ischemic-reperfusion injury occurs in multiple organs due to the return of spontaneous circulation. Bundle of management practicies are required for post-cardiac arrest care. Early invasive coronary angiography should be considered to identify and treat coronary artery obstructive disease. Vasopressors such as norepinephrine and dobutamine are the first-line treatment for shock. Maintainance of oxyhemoglobin saturation greater than 94% but less than 100% is recommended to avoid fatality. Target temperature therapeutic hypothermia helps to resuscitated patients. Strict temperature control is required and is maintained with the help of cooling devices and monitoring the core temperature. Montorings include electrocardiogram, oxymetry, capnography, and electroencephalography (EEG) along with blood pressue, temprature, and vital signs. Seizure should be treated if EEG shows evidence of seizure or epileptiform activity. Clinical neurologic examination and magnetic resonance imaging are considered to predict neurological outcome. Glycemic control and metabolic management are favorable for a good neurological outcome. Recovery from acute kidney injury is essential for survival and a good neurological outcome.

Citations

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  •  Management of Post-Resuscitative Era in Patients with Cardiac Arrest: Post-Cardiac Arrest Syndrome
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  • Vagus nerve stimulation protects against cerebral injury after cardiopulmonary resuscitation by inhibiting inflammation through the TLR4/NF-κB and α7nAChR/JAK2 signaling pathways
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  • Comparison of Clinical Outcomes between Rebound Hyperthermia and Non-Rebound Hypertherma Groups in Postcardiac Arrest Syndrome Patients Undergoing Targeted Temperature Management
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  • Evaluation of Unfractionated Heparin Dosing by Antifactor Xa During Targeted Temperature Management Post Cardiac Arrest
    Carrigan Belcher, Vivek Kataria, Klayton M Ryman, Xuan Wang, Joon Yong Moon, Ariel Modrykamien, Adan Mora
    Hospital Pharmacy.2022; 57(4): 504.     CrossRef
  • Post-Cardiac Arrest Syndrome Is Not Associated With an Early Bacterial Translocation
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  • Exogenous Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Attenuates Postresuscitation Myocardial and Neurologic Dysfunction in a Rat Model of Cardiac Arrest
    Chenglei Su, Yan Xiao, Guozhen Zhang, Lian Liang, Hui Li, Cheng Cheng, Tao Jin, Jennifer Bradley, Mary A. Peberdy, Joseph P. Ornato, Martin J. Mangino, Wanchun Tang
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  • The Inhibition of Zinc Excitotoxicity and AMPK Phosphorylation by a Novel Zinc Chelator, 2G11, Ameliorates Neuronal Death Induced by Global Cerebral Ischemia
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  • Metformin prevents brain injury after cardiopulmonary resuscitation by inhibiting the endoplasmic reticulum stress response and activating AMPK-mediated autophagy
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  • Fast hypothermia induced by extracorporeal circuit cooling alleviates renal and intestinal injury after cardiac arrest in swine
    Jiangang Wang, Lin Shi, Jiefeng Xu, Wen Zhou, Mao Zhang, Chunshuang Wu, Qijiang Chen, Xiaohong Jin, Jungen Zhang
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  • Importance of pulse pressure after extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation
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    Journal of Cardiac Surgery.2021; 36(8): 2743.     CrossRef
  • Transient Global Ischemia-Induced Brain Inflammatory Cascades Attenuated by Targeted Temperature Management
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    Yunis Mayasi, Romergryko G. Geocadin
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    Linda Dalessio
    AACN Advanced Critical Care.2020; 31(4): 383.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Pediatrics
Characteristics, management and clinical outcomes of patients with sepsis: a multicenter cohort study in Korea
Kyeongman Jeon, Soo Jin Na, Dong Kyu Oh, Sunghoon Park, Eun Young Choi, Seok Chan Kim, Gil Myeong Seong, Jeongwon Heo, Youjin Chang, Won Gun Kwack, Byung Ju Kang, Won-Il Choi, Kyung Chan Kim, So Young Park, Sang Hyun Kwak, Yoon Mi Shin, Heung Bum Lee, So Hee Park, Jae Hwa Cho, Beongki Kim, Chae‐Man Lim
Acute Crit Care. 2019;34(3):179-191.   Published online July 1, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2019.00514
  • 8,530 View
  • 321 Download
  • 20 Web of Science
  • 22 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Mortality rates associated with sepsis have increased progressively in Korea, but domestic epidemiologic data remain limited. The objective of this study was to investigate the characteristics, management and clinical outcomes of sepsis patients in Korea.
Methods
This study is a multicenter retrospective cohort study. A total of 64,021 adult patients who visited an emergency department (ED) within one of the 19 participating hospitals during a 1-month period were screened for eligibility. Among these, patients diagnosed with sepsis based on the third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3) were included in the study.
Results
Using the Sepsis-3 criteria, 977 sepsis patients were identified, among which 36.5% presented with septic shock. The respiratory system (61.8%) was the most common site of infection. The pathogen involved was identified in 444 patients (45.5%) and multi-drug resistance (MDR) pathogens were isolated in 171 patients. Empiric antibiotic therapy was appropriate in 68.6% of patients, but the appropriateness was significantly reduced in infections associated with MDR pathogens as compared with non-MDR pathogens (58.8% vs. 76.0%, P<0.001). Hospital mortality was 43.2% and 18.5% in sepsis patients with and without shock, respectively. Of the 703 patients who survived to discharge, 61.5% were discharged to home and 38.6% were transferred to other hospitals or facilities.
Conclusions
This study found the prevalence of sepsis in adult patients visiting an ED in Korea was 1.5% (15.2/1,000 patients). Patients with sepsis, especially septic shock, had a high mortality and were often referred to step-down centers after acute and critical care.

Citations

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Ethics
The quality of dying and death for patients in intensive care units: a single center pilot study
Yanghwan Choi, Myoungrin Park, Da Hyun Kang, Jooseon Lee, Jae Young Moon, Heejoon Ahn
Acute Crit Care. 2019;34(3):192-201.   Published online April 8, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2018.00374
  • 8,374 View
  • 171 Download
  • 11 Web of Science
  • 9 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
To identify the necessary care for dying patients in intensive care units (ICUs), we designed a retrospective study to evaluate the quality of dying and death (QODD) experienced by the surrogates of patients with medical illness who died in the ICU of a tertiary referral hospital.
Methods
To achieve our objective, the authors compared the QODD scores as appraised by the relatives of patients who died of cancer under hospice care with those who died in the ICU. For this study, a Korean version of the QODD questionnaire was developed, and individual interviews were also conducted.
Results
Sixteen people from the intensive care group and 23 people from the hospice care group participated in the survey and completed the questionnaire. The family members of patients who died in the ICU declined participation at a high rate (50%), with the primary reason being to avoid bringing back painful memories (14 people, 87.5%). The relatives of the intensive care group obtained an average total score on the 17-item QODD questionnaire, which was significantly lower than that of the relatives of the hospice group (48.7±15.5 vs. 60.3±14.8, P=0.03).
Conclusions
This work implies that there are unmet needs for the care of dying patients and for the QODD in tertiary hospital ICUs. This result suggests that shared decision making for advance care planning should be encouraged and that education on caring for dying patients should be provided to healthcare professionals to improve the QODD in Korean ICUs.

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Pulmonary
Reduction of PaCO2 by high-flow nasal cannula in acute hypercapnic respiratory failure patients receiving conventional oxygen therapy
Hyun Woo Lee, Sun Mi Choi, Jinwoo Lee, Young Sik Park, Chang-Hoon Lee, Chul-Gyu Yoo, Young Whan Kim, Sung Koo Han, Sang-Min Lee
Acute Crit Care. 2019;34(3):202-211.   Published online August 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2019.00563
  • 9,480 View
  • 205 Download
  • 13 Web of Science
  • 13 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
It has been suggested that a high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) could help to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from anatomical dead spaces, but evidence to support that is lacking. The objective of this study was to elucidate whether use of an HFNC could reduce the arterial partial pressure of CO2 (PaCO2) in patients with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure who are receiving conventional oxygen (O2) therapy.
Methods
A propensity score-matched observational study was conducted to evaluate patients treated with an HFNC for acute hypercapnic respiratory failure from 2015 to 2016. The hypercapnia group was defined as patients with a PaCO2 >50 mm Hg and arterial pH <7.35.
Results
Eighteen patients in the hypercapnia group and 177 patients in the nonhypercapnia group were eligible for the present study. Eighteen patients in each group were matched by propensity score. Decreased PaCO2 and consequent pH normalization over time occurred in the hypercapnia group (P=0.002 and P=0.005, respectively). The initial PaCO2 level correlated linearly with PaCO2 removal after the use of an HFNC (R2=0.378, P=0.010). The fraction of inspired O2 used in the intensive care unit was consistently higher for 48 hours in the nonhypercapnia group. Physiological parameters such as respiratory rate and arterial partial pressure of O2 improved over time in both groups.
Conclusions
Physiological parameters can improve after the use of an HFNC in patients with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure given low-flow O2 therapy via a facial mask. Further studies are needed to identify which hypercapnic patients might benefit from an HFNC.

Citations

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    Cureus.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Andrew Pirotte, Vivek Panchananam, Matthew Finley, Austin Petz, Tom Herrmann
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    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Lucia Spicuzza, Matteo Schisano
    Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease.2020; 11: 204062232092010.     CrossRef
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CPR/Resuscitation
Risk factors associated with inpatient cardiac arrest during emergency endotracheal intubation at general wards
Chul Park
Acute Crit Care. 2019;34(3):212-218.   Published online August 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2019.00598
Correction in: Acute Crit Care 2020;35(3):228
  • 6,941 View
  • 151 Download
  • 10 Web of Science
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Peri-intubation cardiac arrest (PICA) following emergent endotracheal intubation (ETI) is a rare, however, potentially preventable type of cardiac arrest. Limited published data have described factors associated with inpatient PICA and patient outcomes. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with PICA among hospitalized patients emergently intubated at a general ward as compared to non-PICA inpatients. In addition, we identified a difference of clinical outcomes in patients between PICA and other types of inpatient cardiac arrest (OTICA).
Methods
We conducted a retrospective observational study of patients at two institutions between January 2016 to December 2017. PICA was defined in patients emergently intubated who experienced cardiac arrest within 20 minutes after ETI. The non-PICA group consisted of inpatients emergently intubated without cardiac arrest. Risk factors for PICA were identified through univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Clinical outcomes were compared between PICA and OTICA.
Results
Fifteen episodes of PICA occurred during the study period, accounting for 3.6% of all inpatient arrests. Intubation-related shock index, number of intubation attempts, pre-ETI vasopressor use, and neuromuscular blocking agent (NMBA) use, especially succinylcholine, were independently associated with PICA. Clinical outcomes of intensive care unit and hospital length of stay, survival to discharge, and neurologic outcome at hospital discharge were not significantly different between PICA and OTICA.
Conclusions
We identified four independent risk factors for PICA, and preintubation hemodynamic stabilization and avoidance of NMBA were possibly correlated with a decreased PICA risk. Clinical outcomes of PICA were similar to those of OTICA.

Citations

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  • Risk factors for peri-intubation cardiac arrest: A systematic review and meta-analysis
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    Chul Park
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Editorials
Acute and Critical Care will be indexed in PubMed, PubMed Central, Emerging Sources Citation Index, and Scopus
Jae Hwa Cho
Acute Crit Care. 2019;34(3):219-220.   Published online August 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2019.00626
  • 4,305 View
  • 49 Download
PDF
Prevention of sepsis in an aging society
Youngjoon Kang
Acute Crit Care. 2019;34(3):221-222.   Published online August 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2019.00612
  • 4,163 View
  • 110 Download
PDF
Case Reports
Trauma
Long-term extracorporeal membrane oxygenation after severe blunt traumatic lung injury in a child
Ok Jeong Lee, Yang Hyun Cho, Jinwook Hwang, Inae Yoon, Young-Ho Kim, Joongbum Cho
Acute Crit Care. 2019;34(3):223-227.   Published online February 10, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2016.00472
  • 27,047 View
  • 183 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Managing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) after severe blunt traumatic lung injury can be challenging. In cases where patients are refractory to conventional therapy, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) should be considered. In addition, the heparin-coated circuit can reduce hemorrhagic complications in patients with multiple traumas. Although prolonged ECMO may be necessary, excellent outcomes are frequently associated. In this study, we report long-term support with venovenous-ECMO applied in a child with severe blunt trauma in Korea. This 10-year-old and 30-kg male with severe blunt thoracic trauma after a car accident developed severe ARDS a few days later, and ECMO was administered for 33 days. Because of pulmonary hemorrhage during ECMO support, heparin was stopped for 3 days and then restarted. He was weaned from ECMO successfully and has been able to run without difficulty for the 2 years since discharge.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Traumatic main airway rupture successfully rescued by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: A case report
    Lijun Cao, Jun Xu, Linfeng Tang, Yuli Zhou, Xianhua Xiang
    Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in trauma patients: a systematic review
    Changtian Wang, Lei Zhang, Tao Qin, Zhilong Xi, Lei Sun, Haiwei Wu, Demin Li
    World Journal of Emergency Surgery.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
CPR/Resuscitation
Acute aortic dissection developed after cardiopulmonary resuscitation: transesophageal echocardiographic observations and proposed mechanism of injury
Dong Keon Lee, Kyung Sik Kang, Yong Sung Cha, Kyoung-Chul Cha, Hyun Kim, Kang Hyun Lee, Sung Oh Hwang
Acute Crit Care. 2019;34(3):228-231.   Published online April 26, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2015.00633
  • 7,802 View
  • 153 Download
  • 7 Web of Science
  • 8 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
There has been no report about aortic dissection due to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). We present here a case of acute aortic dissection as a rare complication of CPR and propose the potential mechanism of injury on the basis of transesophageal echocardiographic observations. A 54-year-old man presented with cardiac arrest after choking and received 19 minutes of CPR in the emergency department. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) during CPR revealed a focal separation of the intimal layer at the descending thoracic aorta without evidence of aortic dissection. After restoration of spontaneous circulation, hemorrhagic cardiac tamponade developed. Follow-up TEE to investigate the cause of cardiac tamponade revealed aortic dissection of the descending thoracic aorta. Hemorrhagic cardiac tamponade was thought to be caused by myocardial hemorrhage from CPR.

Citations

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  • Thoracic Aortic Rupture Post Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in a Patient With Previous Thoracic Aneurysm Repair
    Aniekeme S Etuk, Olanrewaju F Adeniran , Bernard I Nkwocha, Nformbuh Asangmbeng, Mina Jacob
    Cureus.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Cardiac Arrest as an Uncommon Manifestation of Late Type A Aortic Dissection Associated with Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement
    Jan Naar, Dagmar Vondrakova, Andreas Kruger, Marek Janotka, Iva Zemanova, Martin Syrucek, Petr Neuzil, Petr Ostadal
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2023; 12(16): 5318.     CrossRef
  • Blunt Thoracic Aortic Injury and Contemporary Management Strategy
    Ranjan Dahal, Yogesh Acharya, Alan H. Tyroch, Debabrata Mukherjee
    Angiology.2022; 73(6): 497.     CrossRef
  • Resuscitative endovascular occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) as a mechanical method for increasing the coronary perfusion pressure in non-traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients
    Dong-Hyun Jang, Dong Keon Lee, You Hwan Jo, Seung Min Park, Young Taeck Oh, Chang Woo Im
    Resuscitation.2022; 179: 277.     CrossRef
  • Blunt traumatic aortic dissection death by falling: an autopsy case report
    Gentaro Yamasaki, Marie Sugimoto, Takeshi Kondo, Motonori Takahashi, Mai Morichika, Azumi Kuse, Kanako Nakagawa, Yasuhiro Ueno, Migiwa Asano
    Forensic Science, Medicine and Pathology.2022; 19(3): 388.     CrossRef
  • Intra-arrest transesophageal echocardiography during cardiopulmonary resuscitation
    Sung Oh Hwang, Woo Jin Jung, Young-Il Roh, Kyoung-Chul Cha
    Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine.2022; 9(4): 271.     CrossRef
  • Intra-arrest transoesophageal echocardiographic findings and resuscitation outcomes
    Woo Jin Jung, Kyoung-Chul Cha, Yong Won Kim, Yoon Seop Kim, Young-Il Roh, Sun Ju Kim, Hye Sim Kim, Sung Oh Hwang
    Resuscitation.2020; 154: 31.     CrossRef
  • Aortic Rupture as a Complication of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
    Prashanth Venkatesh, Edward J. Schenck
    JACC: Case Reports.2020; 2(8): 1150.     CrossRef
Image in Critical Care
CPR/Resuscitation
Surgical decontamination in ferrous sulfate intoxication
Jung-In Ko, Kyung Su Kim, Gil Joon Suh, Seong-Ho Kong, Yoon Sun Jung
Acute Crit Care. 2019;34(3):232-234.   Published online April 24, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2018.00409
  • 4,378 View
  • 149 Download
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ACC : Acute and Critical Care