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Articles in E-pub version are posted online ahead of regular printed publication.

Original Articles
Pediatrics
Development of a deep learning model for predicting critical events in a pediatric intensive care unit
In Kyung Lee, Bongjin Lee, June Dong Park
Received November 3, 2023  Accepted January 1, 2024  Published online February 20, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.01424    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Identifying critically ill patients at risk of cardiac arrest is important because it offers the opportunity for early intervention and increased survival. The aim of this study was to develop a deep learning model to predict critical events, such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation or mortality.
Methods
This retrospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary university hospital. All patients younger than 18 years who were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit from January 2010 to May 2023 were included. The main outcome was prediction performance of the deep learning model at forecasting critical events. Long short-term memory was used as a deep learning algorithm. The five-fold cross validation method was employed for model learning and testing.
Results
Among the vital sign measurements collected during the study period, 11,660 measurements were used to develop the model after preprocessing; 1,060 of these data points were measurements that corresponded to critical events. The prediction performance of the model was the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (95% confidence interval) of 0.988 (0.975–1.000), and the area under the precision-recall curve was 0.862 (0.700–1.000).
Conclusions
The performance of the developed model at predicting critical events was excellent. However, follow-up research is needed for external validation.
Pulmonary
Factors related to lung function outcomes in critically ill COVID-19 patients in South Korea
Tae Hun Kim, Myung Jin Song, Sung Yoon Lim, Yeon Joo Lee, Young-Jae Cho
Received May 2, 2023  Accepted January 18, 2024  Published online February 20, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.00668    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
New variants of the virus responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continue to emerge. However, little is known about the effect of these variants on clinical outcomes. This study evaluated the risk factors for poor pulmonary lung function tests (PFTs).
Methods
The study retrospectively analyzed 87 patients in a single hospital and followed up by performing PFTs at an outpatient clinic from January 2020 to December 2021. COVID-19 variants were categorized as either a non-delta variant (November 13, 2020–July 6, 2021) or the delta variant (July 7, 2021–January 29, 2022).
Results
The median age of the patients was 62 years, and 56 patients (64.4%) were male. Mechanical ventilation (MV) was provided for 52 patients, and 36 (41.4%) had restrictive lung defects. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) were lower in patients on MV. Male sex (odds ratio [OR], 0.228) and MV (OR, 4.663) were significant factors for decreased DLCO. The duration of MV was associated with decreased FVC and DLCO. However, the type of variant did not affect the decrease in FVC (P=0.750) and DLCO (P=0.639).
Conclusions
Among critically ill COVID-19 patients, 40% had restrictive patterns with decreased DLCO. The reduction of PFT was associated with MV, type of variants.
Nutrition
Association of malnutrition status with 30-day mortality in patients with sepsis using objective nutritional indices: a multicenter retrospective study
Moon Seong Baek, Young Suk Kwon, Sang Soo Kang, Daechul Shim, Youngsang Yoon, Jong Ho Kim
Received December 12, 2023  Accepted January 17, 2024  Published online February 20, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.01613    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
The Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) score and the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) have emerged as important nutritional indices because they provide an objective assessment based on data. We aimed to investigate how these nutritional indices relate to outcomes in patients with sepsis.
Methods
Data were collected retrospectively at five hospitals for patients aged ≥18 years receiving treatment for sepsis between January 1, 2017, and December 31, 2021. Serum albumin and total cholesterol concentrations, and peripheral lymphocytes were used to calculate the CONUT score and PNI. To identify predictors correlated with 30-day mortality, analyses were conducted using univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models.
Results
The 30-day mortality rate among 9,763 patients was 15.8% (n=1,546). The median CONUT score was 5 (interquartile range [IQR], 3–7) and the median PNI score was 39.6 (IQR, 33.8–46.4). Higher 30-day mortality rates were associated with individuals with moderate (CONUT score: 5–8; PNI: 35–38) or severe (CONUT: 9–12; PNI: <35) malnutrition compared with those with no malnutrition (CONUT: 0–1; PNI: >38). With CONUT scores, the hazard ratio (HR) associated with moderate malnutrition was 1.52 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24–1.87, P<0.001); for severe, HR=2.42 (95% CI, 1.95–3.02, P<0.001). With PNI scores, the HR for moderate malnutrition was 1.29 (95% CI, 1.09–1.53, P=0.003); for severe, HR=1.88 (95% CI, 1.67–2.12, P<0.001).
Conclusions
The nutritional indices CONUT score and PNI showed significant associations with mortality of sepsis patients within 30 days.
Pulmonary
Early bronchoscopy in severe pneumonia patients in intensive care unit: insights from the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care-IV database analysis
Chiwon Ahn, Yeonkyung Park, Yoonseok Oh
Received September 5, 2023  Accepted January 16, 2024  Published online February 15, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.01165    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Pneumonia frequently leads to intensive care unit (ICU) admission and is associated with a high mortality risk. This study aimed to assess the impact of early bronchoscopy administered within 3 days of ICU admission on mortality in patients with pneumonia using the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care-IV (MIMIC-IV) database.
Methods
A single-center retrospective analysis was conducted using the MIMIC-IV data from 2008 to 2019. Adult ICU-admitted patients diagnosed with pneumonia were included in this study. The patients were stratified into two cohorts based on whether they underwent early bronchoscopy. The primary outcome was the 28-day mortality rate. Propensity score matching was used to balance confounding variables.
Results
In total, 8,916 patients with pneumonia were included in the analysis. Among them, 783 patients underwent early bronchoscopy within 3 days of ICU admission, whereas 8,133 patients did not undergo early bronchoscopy. The primary outcome of the 28-day mortality between two groups had no significant difference even after propensity matched cohorts (22.7% vs. 24.0%, P=0.589). Patients undergoing early bronchoscopy had prolonged ICU (P<0.001) and hospital stays (P<0.001) and were less likely to be discharged to home (P<0.001).
Conclusions
Early bronchoscopy in severe pneumonia patients in the ICU did not reduce mortality but was associated with longer hospital stays, suggesting it was used in more severe cases. Therefore, when considering bronchoscopy for these patients, it's important to tailor the decision to each individual case, thoughtfully balancing the possible advantages with the related risks.
Trauma
Role of platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio at the time of arrival to the emergency room as a predictor of short-term mortality in trauma patients with severe trauma team activation
Jae Kwang Kim, Kyung Hoon Sun
Received October 10, 2023  Accepted January 10, 2024  Published online February 15, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.01319    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Platelet-to-Lymphocyte ratio (PLR) has been studied as a prognostic factor for various diseases and traumas. This study examined the utility of PLR as a tool for predicting 30-day mortality in patients experiencing severe trauma.
Methods
This study included 139 patients who experienced trauma and fulfilled ≥1 criteria for activation of the hospital’s severe trauma team. Patients were divided into non-survivor and survivor groups. Mean PLR values were compared between the groups, the optimal PLR cut-off value was determined, and mortality and survival analyses were performed. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS ver. 26.0. The threshold of statistical significance was P<0.05.
Results
There was a significant difference in mean (±standard deviation) PLR between the non-survivor (n=36) and survivor (n=103) groups (53.4±30.1 vs. 89.9±53.3, respectively; P<0.001). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed an optimal PLR cut-off of 65.35 (sensitivity, 0.621; specificity, 0.694, respectively; area under the ROC curve, 0.742), and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed a significant difference in mortality rate between the two groups.
Conclusions
PLR can be calculated quickly and easily from a routine complete blood count, which is often performed in the emergency department for individuals who experience trauma. The PLR is useful for predicting 30-day mortality in trauma patients with severe trauma team activation.
Trauma
Clinical characteristics and outcome of obstetric patients transferred directly to intensive care units
Saad Pirzada, Kimberly Boswell, Jerry Yang, Samantha Asuncion, Fernando Albelo, Amanda Tuchler, Lauren Becker, Allison Lankford, Emad Elsamadicy, Quincy K Tran
Received October 30, 2023  Accepted December 29, 2023  Published online February 15, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.01375    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
Medical complications in peripartum patients are uncommon; however, such events in patients already under biological stress can lead to poor outcomes. Often, these patients are transferred to tertiary care centers, but their conditions and outcomes are not well understood. Our study looked at peripartum patients transferred to an intensive care unit (ICU) at an academic quaternary center.
Methods
We reviewed charts of adult, non-trauma, interhospital transfer (IHT) peripartum patients sent to an academic quaternary ICU between January 2017 and December 2021. We conducted a descriptive analysis and used multivariable ordinal regression to examine associations of demographic and clinical factors with ICU length of stay (ICU LOS) and hospital length of stay (HLOS).
Results
Of 1,794 IHT peripartum patients, 60 (3.2%) were directly transferred to an ICU. The average age was 32 years, with a median Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score of 3 (1–4.25) and median Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score of 8 (7–12). Respiratory failure was most common (32%), followed by postpartum hemorrhage (15%) and sepsis (14%). Intubation was required for 24 (41%), and 4 (7%) needed extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Only 1 (1.7%) died, while 45 (76.3%) were discharged. Median ICU LOS and HLOS were 5 days (2–12) and 8 days (5–17). High SOFA was linked to longer HLOS, as was APACHE II score.
Conclusions
Transfers of critically ill peripartum patients between hospitals were rare but involved severe medical conditions. Despite this, their outcomes were generally positive. Larger studies are needed to confirm our findings.
Image in Critical Care
CPR/Resuscitation
An unusual case of relapsing arrhythmia during veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cannulation
Ruth Van Lancker, Tim Balthazar, Stijn Lochy, Michaël Mekeirele
Received August 16, 2023  Accepted November 16, 2023  Published online February 15, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.01032    [Epub ahead of print]
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Review Article
Pulmonary
Prolonged Intensive Care: Muscular, functional, and nutritional insights from the COVID-19 pandemic
Miguel Ángel Martínez-Camacho, Robert Alexander Jones-Baro, Alberto Gómez-González, Dalia Sahian Lugo-García, Pía Carolina Gallardo Astorga, Andrea Melo-Villalobos, Bárbara Kassandra Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Ángel Augusto Pérez-Calatayud
Received October 10, 2023  Accepted October 31, 2023  Published online February 2, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.01284    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDF
During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, clinical staff learned how to manage patients enduring extended stays in an intensive care unit (ICU). COVID-19 patients requiring critical care in an ICU face a high risk of experiencing prolonged intensive care (PIC). The use of invasive mechanical ventilation in individuals with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome can cause numerous complications that influence both short-term and long-term morbidity and mortality. Those risks underscore the importance of proactively addressing functional complications. Mitigating secondary complications unrelated to the primary pathology of admission is imperative in minimizing the risk of PIC. Therefore, incorporating strategies to do that into daily ICU practice for both COVID-19 patients and those critically ill from other conditions is significantly important.
Original Articles
Pediatrics
Prevalence of extracorporeal blood purification techniques in critically ill patients before and during the COVID-19 pandemic
Aya O Mohammed, Hanaa I. Rady
Received December 19, 2022  Accepted November 9, 2023  Published online February 1, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.00654    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Extracorporeal blood-purification techniques are frequently needed in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), yet data on their clinical application are lacking. This study aims to review the indications, rate of application, clinical characteristics, complications, and outcomes of patients undergoing extracorporeal blood purification (i.e., by continuous renal replacement therapy [CRRT] or therapeutic plasma exchange [TPE]) in our PICU, including before the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in 2019 and during the pandemic from 2020–2022.
Methods
This study included children admitted for extracorporeal blood-purification therapy in the PICU. The indications for TPE were analyzed and compared to the American Society for Apheresis categories.
Results
In 82 children, 380 TPE sessions and 37 CRRT sessions were carried out children, with 65 patients (79%) receiving TPE, 17 (20.7%) receiving CRRT, and four (4.8%) receiving both therapies. The most common indications for TPE were neurological diseases (39/82, 47.5%), followed by hematological diseases (18/82, 21.9%). CRRT was mainly performed for patients suffering from acute kidney injury. Patients with neurological diseases received the greatest number of TPE sessions (295, 77.6%). Also, the year 2022 contained the greatest number of patients receiving extracorporeal blood-purification therapy (either CRRT or TPE).
Conclusions
The use of extracorporeal blood-purification techniques increased from 2019 through 2022 due to mainly autoimmune dysregulation among affected patients. TPE can be safely used in an experienced PICU. No serious adverse events were observed in the patients that received TPE, and overall survival over the 4 years was 86.5%.
Pulmonary
Association between mechanical power and intensive care unit mortality in Korean patients under pressure-controlled ventilation
Jae Kyeom Sim, Sang-Min Lee, Hyung Koo Kang, Kyung Chan Kim, Young Sam Kim, Yun Seong Kim, Won-Yeon Lee, Sunghoon Park, So Young Park, Ju-Hee Park, Yun Su Sim, Kwangha Lee, Yeon Joo Lee, Jin Hwa Lee, Heung Bum Lee, Chae-Man Lim, Won-Il Choi, Ji Young Hong, Won Jun Song, Gee Young Suh
Received July 3, 2024  Accepted December 13, 2023  Published online January 26, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.00871    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
Mechanical power (MP), which integrates ventilator variables affecting ventilator-induced lung injury, has been reported to be associated with clinical outcomes. Because the original MP equation is derived from paralyzed patients under volume-controlled ventilation, its application in practice could be limited in patients receiving pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV). Recently, a simplified equation for patients under PCV was developed. We investigated the association between MP and intensive care unit (ICU) mortality.
Methods
We conducted a retrospective analysis of Korean data from the Fourth International Study of Mechanical Ventilation. We extracted data of patients under PCV on day 1 and calculated MP using the following simplified equation: MPPCV=0.098 ∙ RR ∙ VT ∙ (ΔPinsp + PEEP). Patients were divided into survivors and non-survivors and then compared. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine association between MPPCV and ICU mortality. The interaction of MPPCV and use of neuromuscular blocking agent (NMBA) was also analyzed.
Results
A total of 125 patients was eligible for final analysis, of whom 38 died in the ICU. MPPCV was higher in non-survivors (17.6 vs. 26.3 J/min, P<0.001). In logistic regression analysis, only MPPCV was significantly associated with ICU mortality (odds ratio, 1.090; 95% confidence interval, 1.029–1.155; P=0.003). There was no significant effect of the interaction between MPPCV and use of NMBA on ICU mortality (P=0.579).
Conclusions
MPPCV is associated with ICU mortality in patients mechanically ventilated with PCV mode, regardless of NMBA use.
Pulmonary
Comparison of preoxygenation with a high-flow nasal cannula and a simple face mask before intubation in patients with head and neck cancer
Jun-Young Jo, Jungpil Yoon, Heeyoon Jang, Wook-Jong Kim, Seungwoo Ku, Seong-Soo Choi
Received December 19, 2022  Accepted November 9, 2023  Published online January 26, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.01543    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
Although preoxygenation is an essential procedure for safe endotracheal intubation, in some cases securing sufficient time for tracheal intubation may not be possible. Patients with head and neck cancer might have a difficult airway and need a longer time for endotracheal intubation. We hypothesized that the extended apneic period with preoxygenation via a high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is beneficial to patients who undergo head and neck surgery compared with preoxygenation with a simple mask.
Methods
The study was conducted as a single-center, single-blinded, prospective, randomized controlled trial. Patients were divided into groups based on one of the two preoxygenation methods: HFNC group or simple facemask (mask group). Preoxygenation was performed for 5 minutes with each method, and endotracheal intubation for all patients was performed using a video laryngoscope. Oxygen partial pressures of the arterial blood were compared at the predefined time points.
Results
For the primary outcome, the mean arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) immediately after intubation was 454.2 mm Hg (95% confidence interval [CI], 416.9–491.5 mm Hg) in the HFNC group and 370.7 mmHg (95% CI, 333.7–407.4) in the mask group (P=0.002). The peak PaO2 at T2 was not statistically different between the groups (P=0.355).
Conclusions
Preoxygenation with a HFNC extending to the apneic period before endotracheal intubation may be beneficial in patients with head and neck cancer.
Pediatrics
Outcomes of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support in pediatric hemato-oncology patients
Hong Yul An, Hyoung Jin Kang, June Dong Park
Received August 23, 2023  Accepted December 13, 2023  Published online January 24, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.01088    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
In this study, we reviewed the outcomes of pediatric patients with malignancies who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).
Methods
We retrospectively analyzed the records of pediatric hemato-oncology patients treated with chemotherapy or HSCT and who received ECMO in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) at Seoul National University Children’s Hospital from January 2012 to December 2020.
Results
Over a 9-year period, 21 patients (14 males and 7 females) received ECMO at a single pediatric institute; 10 patients (48%) received veno-arterial (VA) ECMO for septic shock (n=5), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (n=3), stress-induced myopathy (n=1), or hepatopulmonary syndrome (n=1); and 11 patients (52%) received veno-venous (VV) ECMO for ARDS due to pneumocystis pneumonia (n=1), air leak (n=3), influenza (n=1), pulmonary hemorrhage (n=1), or unknown etiology (n=5). All patients received chemotherapy; 9 received anthracycline drugs and 14 (67%) underwent HSCT. Thirteen patients (62%) were diagnosed with malignancies and 8 (38%) were diagnosed with non-malignant disease. Among the 21 patients, 6 (29%) survived ECMO in the PICU and 5 (24%) survived to hospital discharge. Among patients treated for septic shock, 3 of 5 patients (60%) who underwent ECMO and 5 of 10 patients (50%) who underwent VA ECMO survived. However, all the patients who underwent VA ECMO or VV ECMO for ARDS died.
Conclusions
ECMO is a feasible treatment option for respiratory or heart failure in pediatric patients receiving chemotherapy or undergoing HSCT.
Cardiology
Clinical implications of pleural effusion following left ventricular assist device implantation
So-Min Lim, Ah-Ram Kim, Junho Hyun, Sang-Eun Lee, Pil-Je Kang, Sung-Ho Jung, Min-Seok Kim
Received August 22, 2023  Accepted November 14, 2023  Published online January 17, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.01102    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Studies on the association between pleural effusion (PE) and left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are limited. This study aimed to examine the characteristics and the clinical impact of PE following LVAD implantation.
Methods
This study is a prospective analysis of patients who underwent LVAD implantation from June 2015 to December 2022. We investigated the prognostic impact of therapeutic drainage (TD) on clinical outcomes. We also compared the characteristics and clinical outcomes between early and late PE and examined the factors related to the development of late PE.
Results
A total of 71 patients was analyzed. The TD group (n=45) had a longer ward stay (days; median [interquartile range]) (31.0 [23.0–46.0] vs. 21.0 [16.0–34.0], P=0.006) and total hospital stay (47.0 [36.0–82.0] vs. 31.0 [22.0–48.0], P=0.002) compared to the no TD group (n=26). Early PE was mostly exudate, left-sided, and neutrophil-dominant even though predominance of lymphocytes was the most common finding in late PE. Patients with late PE had a higher rate of reintubation within 14 days (31.8% vs. 4.1%, P=0.004) and longer hospital stays than those without late PE (67.0 [43.0–104.0] vs. 36.0 [28.0–48.0], P<0.001). Subgroup analysis indicated that female sex, low body mass index, cardiac resynchronization therapy, and hypoalbuminemia were associated with late PE.
Conclusions
Compared to patients not undergoing TD, those undergoing TD had a longer hospital stay but not a higher 90-day mortality. Patients with late PE had poor clinical outcomes. Therefore, the correction of risk factors, like hypoalbuminemia, may be required.
Review Article
Basic science and research
Brain–computer interface in critical care and rehabilitation
Eunseo Oh, Seyoung Shin, Sung-Phil Kim
Received October 30, 2023  Accepted November 8, 2023  Published online January 12, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.01382    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This comprehensive review explores the broad landscape of brain–computer interface (BCI) technology and its potential use in intensive care units (ICUs), particularly for patients with motor impairments such as quadriplegia or severe brain injury. By employing brain signals from various sensing techniques, BCIs offer enhanced communication and motor rehabilitation strategies for patients. This review underscores the concept and efficacy of noninvasive, electroencephalogram-based BCIs in facilitating both communicative interactions and motor function recovery. Additionally, it highlights the current research gap in intuitive “stop” mechanisms within motor rehabilitation protocols, emphasizing the need for advancements that prioritize patient safety and individualized responsiveness. Furthermore, it advocates for more focused research that considers the unique requirements of ICU environments to address the challenges arising from patient variability, fatigue, and limited applicability of current BCI systems outside of experimental settings.
Letter to the Editor
Pulmonary
Pre-intubation huddle to reduce peri-intubation adverse events
Anna M Budde, Jenna L Potter, Anna R Benson, Jared A Larson, Christopher A Linke, Kathryn M Pendleton
Received September 9, 2023  Accepted November 5, 2023  Published online January 3, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.01151    [Epub ahead of print]
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