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The frequency and seasonal distribution of viral infection in patients with community-acquired pneumonia and its impact on the prognosis
Kyung Jun Kim, Doh Hyung Kim
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(4):550-560.   Published online October 6, 2022
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  • 81 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Studies on the effects of viral coinfection on bacterial pneumonia are still scarce in South Korea. This study investigates the frequency and seasonal distribution of virus infection and its impact on the prognosis in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Methods: The medical records of CAP patients with definite etiology, such as viruses and bacteria, were retrospectively reviewed. Their epidemiologic and clinical characteristics, microbiologic test results, the severity of illness, and 30-day mortality were analyzed. Results: Among 150 study subjects, 68 patients (45.3%) had viral infection alone, 47 (31.3%) had bacterial infection alone, and 35 (23.3%) had viral-bacterial coinfection, respectively. Among 103 patients with viral infections, Influenza A virus (44%) was the most common virus, followed by rhinovirus (19%), influenza B (13%), and adenovirus (6%). The confusion-urea-respiratory rateblood pressure-age of 65 (CURB-65) score of the viral-bacterial coinfection was higher than that of the viral infection (median [interquartile range]: 2.0 [1.0–4.0] vs. 2.0 [0.3–3.0], P=0.029). The 30-day mortality of the viral infection alone group (2.9%) was significantly lower than that of bacterial infection alone (19.1%) and viral-bacterial coinfection (25.7%) groups (Bonferroni-corrected P<0.05). Viral-bacterial coinfection was the stronger predictor of 30-day mortality in CAP (odds ratio [OR], 18.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.0–118.3; P=0.002) than bacterial infection alone (OR, 6.3; 95% CI, 1.1–36.4; P=0.041), compared to viral infection alone on the multivariate analysis. Conclusions: The etiology of viral infection in CAP is different according to regional characteristics. Viral-bacterial coinfection showed a worse prognosis than bacterial infection alone in patients with CAP.
Comparison of critically ill COVID-19 and influenza patients with acute respiratory failure
Mehmet Yildirim, Burcin Halacli, Mehmet Yasir Pektezel, Berrin Er, Ismail Tuna Geldigitti, Gulay Tok, Ebru Ortac Ersoy, Arzu Topeli
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(2):168-176.   Published online March 11, 2022
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  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is one of the biggest pandemic causing acute respiratory failure (ARF) in the last century. Seasonal influenza carries high mortality, as well. The aim of this study was to compare features and outcomes of critically-ill COVID-19 and influenza patients with ARF.
Patients with COVID-19 and influenza admitted to intensive care unit with ARF were retrospectively analyzed.
Fifty-four COVID-19 and 55 influenza patients with ARF were studied. Patients with COVID-19 had 32% of hospital mortality, while those with influenza had 47% (P=0.09). Patients with influenza had higher Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group, Clinical Frailty Scale, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II and admission Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores than COVID-19 patients (P<0.01). Secondary bacterial infection, admission acute kidney injury, procalcitonin level above 0.2 ng/ml were the independent factors distinguishing influenza from COVID-19 while prone positioning differentiated COVID-19 from influenza. Invasive mechanical ventilation (odds ratio [OR], 42.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 9.45–187.97), admission SOFA score more than 4 (OR, 5.92; 95% CI, 1.85–18.92), malignancy (OR, 4.95; 95% CI, 1.13–21.60), and age more than 65 years (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 0.99–11.03) were found to be independent risk factors for hospital mortality.
There were few differences in clinical features of critically-ill COVID-19 and influenza patients. Influenza cases had worse performance status and disease severity. There was no significant difference in hospital mortality rates between COVID-19 and influenza patients.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Comparison of Clinical Features and Outcomes between SARS-CoV-2 and Non-SARS-CoV-2 Respiratory Viruses Associated Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Retrospective Analysis
    Manbong Heo, Jong Hwan Jeong, Sunmi Ju, Seung Jun Lee, Yi Yeong Jeong, Jong Deog Lee, Jung-Wan Yoo
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2022; 11(8): 2246.     CrossRef
Case Reports
Stress-induced Cardiomyopathy Associated with Swine Influenza Infection Which Exacerbated Underlying Emphysema: A Case Report
Sung Gook Song, June Hong Kim, Kook Jin Chun, Jun Kim, Yong Hyun Park, Jeong Su Kim, Ju Hyun Park, Dong Cheul Han, Woo Hyun Cho, Doo Soo Jeon, Yun Seong Kim
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2010;25(4):245-248.
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  • 12 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Stress-induced cardiomyopathy (SICM) is an acute cardiac condition that causes left ventricular apical ballooning which mimicks acute coronary syndrome. The risk of in-hospital mortality with SICM is generally low (1% to 3%) and supportive care is usually sufficient for resolution. Swine-origin influenza A (H1N1, S-OIV) is a recently spreading pandemic and a serious public health problem. Although most S-OIV infections have a mild, self-limited course, clinical cases resulting in fatalities and associated with variable co-morbidities remain as a serious concern in some individuals. Among such serious complications, there have been few reports of SICM caused by S-OIV infection. We herein report, for the first time in the literature, a case with fatal hemodynamic instability secondary to SICM caused by S-OIV infection with viral pneumonia.
Two Cases of Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum Complicating Viral Pneumonia Caused by Influenza A Virus, (H1N1 Subtype): A Case Report
Jae Woong Tae, Eun Jin Kim, Woo Jin Jang, Min Jeong Kim, Hae Ri Chon, Eun Soo Jeong, Young Min Koh
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2010;25(3):163-167.
  • 1,903 View
  • 23 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Influenza A virus, (H1N1 Subtype), was identified as the cause of outbreaks of febrile respiratory infection in Mexico, the US, Canada and elsewhere during the spring of 2009. In Korea, a novel virus infection showing many variable complications was also pandemic. We report two cases of spontaneous pneumomediastinum, complicating viral pneumonia, caused by Influenza A virus, (H1N1 Subtype).

ACC : Acute and Critical Care