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1 "Seung-Hun You"
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Patterns of inflammatory immune responses in patients with septic shock receiving vitamin C, hydrocortisone, and thiamine: clustering analysis in Korea
Seung-Hun You, Oh Joo Kweon, Sun-Young Jung, Moon Seong Baek, Won-Young Kim
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(3):286-297.   Published online August 21, 2023
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Sepsis is characterized by heterogeneous immune responses that may evolve during the course of illness. This study identified inflammatory immune responses in septic patients receiving vitamin C, hydrocortisone, and thiamine.
This was a single-center, post-hoc analysis of 95 patients with septic shock who received the vitamin C protocol. Blood samples were drawn on days 1–2, 3–4, and 6–8 after shock onset. Group-based multi-trajectory modeling was used to identify immune trajectory groups.
The median age was 78 years (interquartile range, 70–84 years), and 56% were male. Clustering analysis identified group 1 (n=41), which was characterized by lower interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-10 levels, and these levels remained stationary or mildly increased until day 7. Conversely, group 2 (n=54) expressed initially higher IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 levels that decreased rapidly by day 4. There was a nonsignificant increase in lymphocyte count and a decrease in C-reactive protein level until day 7 in group 2. The intensive care unit mortality rate was significantly lower in group 2 (39.0% vs. 18.5%, P=0.03). Group 2 also had a significantly higher decrease in the mean (standard deviation) vasopressor dose (norepinephrine equivalent: –0.09±0.16 μg/kg/min vs. –0.23±0.31 μg/kg/min, P<0.001) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (0±5 vs. –4±3, P=0.002) between days 1 and 4.
There may be different subphenotypes in septic patients receiving the vitamin C protocol.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Micronutrients as therapy in critical illness
    Christian Stoppe, Ellen Dresen, Angelique de Man
    Current Opinion in Critical Care.2024; 30(2): 178.     CrossRef

ACC : Acute and Critical Care