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8 "endotracheal intubation"
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Trauma
Association of Glasgow coma scale and endotracheal intubation in predicting mortality among patients admitted to the intensive care unit
Nader Markazi Moghaddam, Mohammad Fathi, Sanaz Zargar Balaye Jame, Mohammad Darvishi, Morteza Mortazavi
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(1):113-121.   Published online February 22, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00927
  • 2,276 View
  • 130 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
We assessed predictors of mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU) and investigated if Glasgow coma scale (GCS) is associated with mortality in patients undergoing endotracheal intubation (EI). Methods: From February 2020, we performed a 1-year study on 2,055 adult patients admitted to the ICU of two teaching hospitals. The outcome was mortality during ICU stay and the predictors were patients’ demographic, clinical, and laboratory features. Results: EI was associated with a decreased risk for mortality compared with similar patients (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.32; P=0.030). This shows that EI had been performed correctly with proper indications. Increasing age (AOR, 1.04; P<0.001) or blood pressure (AOR, 1.01; P<0.001), respiratory problems (AOR, 3.24; P<0.001), nosocomial infection (AOR, 1.64; P=0.014), diabetes (AOR, 5.69; P<0.001), history of myocardial infarction (AOR, 2.52; P<0.001), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AOR, 3.93; P<0.001), immunosuppression (AOR, 3.15; P<0.001), and the use of anesthetics/sedatives/hypnotics for reasons other than EI (AOR, 4.60; P<0.001) were directly; and GCS (AOR, 0.84; P<0.001) was inversely related to mortality. In patients with trauma surgeries (AOR, 0.62; P=0.014) or other surgical categories (AOR, 0.61; P=0.024) undergoing EI, GCS had an inverse relation with mortality (accuracy=82.6%, area under the receiver operator characteristic curve=0.81). Conclusions: A variety of features affected the risk for mortality in patients admitted to the ICU. Considering GCS score for EI had the potential of affecting prognosis in subgroups of patients such as those with trauma surgeries or other surgical categories.
Liver
Early mechanical ventilation for grade IV hepatic encephalopathy is associated with increased mortality among patients with cirrhosis: an exploratory study
Saad Saffo, Guadalupe Garcia-Tsao
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(3):355-362.   Published online August 18, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00528
  • 3,616 View
  • 198 Download
  • 4 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Unresponsive patients with toxic-metabolic encephalopathies often undergo endotracheal intubation for the primary purpose of preventing aspiration events. However, among patients with pre-existing systemic comorbidities, mechanical ventilation itself may be associated with numerous risks such as hypotension, aspiration, delirium, and infection. Our primary aim was to determine whether early mechanical ventilation for airway protection was associated with increased mortality in patients with cirrhosis and grade IV hepatic encephalopathy.
Methods
The National Inpatient Sample was queried for hospital stays due to grade IV hepatic encephalopathy among patients with cirrhosis between 2016 and 2019. After applying our exclusion criteria, including cardiopulmonary failure, data from 1,975 inpatient stays were analyzed. Patients who received mechanical ventilation within 2 days of admission were compared to those who did not. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify clinical factors associated with in-hospital mortality.
Results
Of 162 patients who received endotracheal intubation during the first 2 hospital days, 64 (40%) died during their hospitalization, in comparison to 336 (19%) of 1,813 patients in the comparator group. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, mechanical ventilation was the strongest predictor of in-hospital mortality in our primary analysis (adjusted odds ratio, 3.00; 95% confidence interval, 2.14–4.20; P<0.001) and in all sensitivity analyses.
Conclusions
Mechanical ventilation for the sole purpose of airway protection among patients with cirrhosis and grade IV hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with increased in-hospital mortality. Future studies are necessary to confirm and further characterize our findings.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Development and validation of a nomogram for predicting in-hospital mortality of intensive care unit patients with liver cirrhosis
    Xiao-Wei Tang, Wen-Sen Ren, Shu Huang, Kang Zou, Huan Xu, Xiao-Min Shi, Wei Zhang, Lei Shi, Mu-Han Lü
    World Journal of Hepatology.2024; 16(4): 625.     CrossRef
  • Review article: Evaluation and care of the critically ill patient with cirrhosis
    Iva Kosuta, Madhumita Premkumar, K. Rajender Reddy
    Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics.2024; 59(12): 1489.     CrossRef
  • Using machine learning methods to predict 28-day mortality in patients with hepatic encephalopathy
    Zhe Zhang, Jian Wang, Wei Han, Li Zhao
    BMC Gastroenterology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Experience in Non-invasive Ventilation in Grade 3 Hepatic Encephalopathy
    İlhan Ocak, Mustafa Çolak, Erdem Kınacı
    Istanbul Medical Journal.2023; 24(3): 295.     CrossRef
CPR/Resuscitation
Risk factors associated with inpatient cardiac arrest during emergency endotracheal intubation at general wards
Chul Park
Acute Crit Care. 2019;34(3):212-218.   Published online August 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2019.00598
Correction in: Acute Crit Care 2020;35(3):228
  • 6,840 View
  • 151 Download
  • 10 Web of Science
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Peri-intubation cardiac arrest (PICA) following emergent endotracheal intubation (ETI) is a rare, however, potentially preventable type of cardiac arrest. Limited published data have described factors associated with inpatient PICA and patient outcomes. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with PICA among hospitalized patients emergently intubated at a general ward as compared to non-PICA inpatients. In addition, we identified a difference of clinical outcomes in patients between PICA and other types of inpatient cardiac arrest (OTICA).
Methods
We conducted a retrospective observational study of patients at two institutions between January 2016 to December 2017. PICA was defined in patients emergently intubated who experienced cardiac arrest within 20 minutes after ETI. The non-PICA group consisted of inpatients emergently intubated without cardiac arrest. Risk factors for PICA were identified through univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Clinical outcomes were compared between PICA and OTICA.
Results
Fifteen episodes of PICA occurred during the study period, accounting for 3.6% of all inpatient arrests. Intubation-related shock index, number of intubation attempts, pre-ETI vasopressor use, and neuromuscular blocking agent (NMBA) use, especially succinylcholine, were independently associated with PICA. Clinical outcomes of intensive care unit and hospital length of stay, survival to discharge, and neurologic outcome at hospital discharge were not significantly different between PICA and OTICA.
Conclusions
We identified four independent risk factors for PICA, and preintubation hemodynamic stabilization and avoidance of NMBA were possibly correlated with a decreased PICA risk. Clinical outcomes of PICA were similar to those of OTICA.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Risk factors for peri-intubation cardiac arrest: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Ting-Hao Yang, Shih-Chieh Shao, Yi-Chih Lee, Chien-Han Hsiao, Chieh-Ching Yen
    Biomedical Journal.2023; : 100656.     CrossRef
  • Reverse shock index (RSI) as a predictor of post-intubation cardiac arrest (PICA)
    Mehdi Torabi, Ghazal Soleimani Mahani, Moghaddameh Mirzaee
    International Journal of Emergency Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Incidence and factors associated with out-of-hospital peri-intubation cardiac arrest: a secondary analysis of the CURASMUR trial
    Cédric Gil-Jardiné, Patricia Jabre, Frederic Adnet, Thomas Nicol, Patrick Ecollan, Bertrand Guihard, Cyril Ferdynus, Valery Bocquet, Xavier Combes
    Internal and Emergency Medicine.2022; 17(2): 611.     CrossRef
  • Risk factors associated with peri-intubation cardiac arrest in the emergency department
    Ting-Hao Yang, Kuan-Fu Chen, Shi-Ying Gao, Chih-Chuan Lin
    The American Journal of Emergency Medicine.2022; 58: 229.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of video-stylet and conventional laryngoscope for endotracheal intubation in adults with cervical spine immobilization: A PRISMA-compliant meta-analysis
    I-Wen Chen, Yu-Yu Li, Kuo-Chuan Hung, Ying-Jen Chang, Jen-Yin Chen, Ming-Chung Lin, Kuei-Fen Wang, Chien-Ming Lin, Ping-Wen Huang, Cheuk-Kwan Sun
    Medicine.2022; 101(33): e30032.     CrossRef
  • Peri-Intubation Cardiorespiratory Arrest Risk in Pediatric Patients: A Systematic Review
    Rohit S. Loomba, Riddhi Patel, Elizabeth Kunnel, Enrique G. Villarreal, Juan S. Farias, Saul Flores
    Journal of Pediatric Intensive Care.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Comparison of Suction Rates Between a Standard Yankauer, a Commercial Large-Bore Suction Device, and a Makeshift Large-Bore Suction Device
    Dhimitri A. Nikolla, Briana King, Andrew Heslin, Jestin N. Carlson
    The Journal of Emergency Medicine.2021; 61(3): 265.     CrossRef
  • Emergency Airway Management Outside the Operating Room: Current Evidence and Management Strategies
    Kunal Karamchandani, Jonathan Wheelwright, Ae Lim Yang, Nathaniel D. Westphal, Ashish K. Khanna, Sheila N. Myatra
    Anesthesia & Analgesia.2021; 133(3): 648.     CrossRef
  • Further Validation of a Novel Acute Myocardial Infarction Risk Stratification (nARS) System for Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction
    Shinnosuke Sawano, Kenichi Sakakura, Kei Yamamoto, Yousuke Taniguchi, Takunori Tsukui, Masaru Seguchi, Hiroshi Wada, Shin-ichi Momomura, Hideo Fujita
    International Heart Journal.2020; 61(3): 463.     CrossRef
  • Corrigendum to: Risk factors associated with inpatient cardiac arrest during emergency endotracheal intubation at general wards
    Chul Park
    Acute and Critical Care.2020; 35(3): 228.     CrossRef
Pulmonary
Clinical Application of Modified Burns Wean Assessment Program Scores at First Spontaneous Breathing Trial in Weaning Patients from Mechanical Ventilation
Eun Suk Jeong, Kwangha Lee
Acute Crit Care. 2018;33(4):260-268.   Published online November 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2018.00276
  • 8,067 View
  • 263 Download
  • 6 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical application of modified Burns Wean Assessment Program (m-BWAP) scoring at first spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) as a predictor of successful liberation from mechanical ventilation (MV) in patients with endotracheal intubation.
Methods
Patients requiring MV for more than 72 hours and undergoing more than one SBT in a medical intensive care unit (ICU) were prospectively enrolled over a 3-year period. The m-BWAP score at first SBT was obtained by a critical care nursing practitioner.
Results
A total of 103 subjects were included in this study. Their median age was 69 years (range, 22 to 87 years) and 72 subjects (69.9%) were male. The median duration from admission to first SBT was 5 days (range, 3 to 26 days), and the rate of final successful liberation from MV was 84.5% (n=87). In the total group of patients, the successful liberation from MV group at first SBT (n=65) had significantly higher m-BWAP scores than did the unsuccessful group (median, 60; range, 43 to 80 vs. median, 53; range, 33 to 70; P<0.001). Also, the area under the m-BWAP curve for predicting successful liberation of MV was 0.748 (95% confidence interval, 0.650 to 0.847), while the cutoff value based on Youden’s index was 53 (sensitivity, 76%; specificity, 64%).
Conclusions
The present data show that the m-BWAP score represents a good predictor of weaning success in patients with an endotracheal tube in place at first SBT.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • What do we know about experiencing end-of-life in burn intensive care units? A scoping review
    André Filipe Ribeiro, Sandra Martins Pereira, Rui Nunes, Pablo Hernández-Marrero
    Palliative and Supportive Care.2023; 21(4): 741.     CrossRef
  • Effect of a Japanese Version of the Burns Wean Assessment Program e-Learning Materials on Ventilator Withdrawal for Intensive Care Unit Nurses
    Rika KIMURA, Naoko HAYASHI, Akemi UTSUNOMIYA
    Journal of Nursing Research.2023; 31(4): e287.     CrossRef
  • Value of modified Burns Wean Assessment Program scores in the respiratory intensive care unit: An Egyptian study
    Nermeen A. Abdelaleem, Sherif A.A. Mohamed, Azza S. Abd ElHafeez, Hassan A. Bayoumi
    Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Protecting Postextubation Respiratory Failure and Reintubation by High-Flow Nasal Cannula Compared to Low-Flow Oxygen System: Single Center Retrospective Study and Literature Review
    Minhyeok Lee, Ji Hye Kim, In Beom Jeong, Ji Woong Son, Moon Jun Na, Sun Jung Kwon
    Acute and Critical Care.2019; 34(1): 60.     CrossRef
Comparison of Hemodynamic Changes by the Thoracic Electrical Bioimpedance Device during Endotracheal Intubation or Insertion of Laryngeal Mask Airway in General Anesthesia
Han Mok You, Jin Mo Kim, Jae Kyu Cheun
Korean J Crit Care Med. 1998;13(1):67-72.
  • 1,653 View
  • 7 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Introduction: we measured the hemodynamic changes by the thoracic electrical bioimpedance (TEB) device during induction of anesthesia, endotracheal intubation or insertion of layngeal mask airway (LMA). This TEB device is safe, reliable and estimate continuously and invasively hemodynamic variables.
METHODS
We measured the cardiovascular response of endotracheal intubation or that of LMA insertion in thirty ASA class I patients. General anesthesia was induced with injection of fentany 1 microgram/kg, thiopetal sodium 5 mg/kg and vecuronium 1 mg/kg intravenously. Controlled ventilation was for 3 minutes with inhalation of 50% nitrous oxide and 1.5 vol% of enflurane before tracheal intubation or LMA insertion in all patients. The patient was randomly assinged to either tracheal intubation group (ET group) or laryngeal mask airway group (LMA group). Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), stroke index (SI) and cardic index (CI) were measured to pre-induction, pre-intubation, 1 minute after intubation, 2 minute, 3 minute, 5 minute, 7 minute.
RESULTS
MAP and SVR were decreased effectively LMA group than ET group during 1 minute after intubation, 2 minute, 3 minute, 5 minute, 7 minute (p<0.05). HR was decreased effectively LMA group than ET group between pre-induction and 1 minute after intubation, between 1 minute after intubation and 2 minute after intubation (p<0.05). But, SI and CI were no difference between ET group and LMA group during induction of anesthesia and intubation (p<0.05).
CONCLUSION
The insertion of LMA is beneficial for certain patients than endotracheal tube to avoid harmful cardiovascular response in the management of airway during anesthesia.
Case Reports
Transient Dilation of the Membranous Trachea after Endotracheal Intubation: A Case Report
Seung Choi, Eun Woo Lee, Myung Ho Yun, Jae Young Park, Cheol Hwan Kim, Jae Won Beom, Gun Park
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2012;27(1):55-58.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2012.27.1.55
  • 2,531 View
  • 12 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Endotracheal intubation is a quick, simple and safe procedure for airway management and is used in various medical procedures. Many endotracheal tubes have a cuff system, which prevents aspiration and allows positive pressure ventilation. However excessive inflation of the cuff can cause mucosal ischemia with tracheal dilation which may result in tracheal rupture, or even death. Fortunately, mucosal ischemia of the trachea can be treated successfully with well-timed control of cuff pressure. It is essential for medical practitioners to be aware of these complications and to be able to manage them effectively if they arise. We present a case of diverticular-like dilation of the lower trachea detected by fiberoptic bronchoscopy that eventually improved in the hemoptysis patient after endotracheal intubation.
A Case of Bilateral Vocal Cord Paralysis Due to Subglottic Pressure Injury after Endotracheal Intubation: A Case Report
Gyu Sik Choi, Sang Hoon Kim, Jae Hyung Lee, You Lim Kim, Ji Hyun Lee, Young Woo Jang, Eun Sun Cheong, Jong Kwan Jung, Byoung Hoon Lee
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2011;26(3):191-195.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2011.26.3.191
  • 2,816 View
  • 21 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Bilateral vocal cord paralysis may occur as a result of mechanical injury during neck surgery, nerve compression by endotracheal intubation or mass, trauma, and neuromuscular diseases. However, only a few cases of bilateral vocal cord paralysis have occurred following short-term endotracheal intubation. We report a case of bilateral vocal cord paralysis subsequent to extubation after endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation due to severe pneumonia for 2 days.
Tracheoesophageal Fistula as a Complication after Endotracheal Intubation: A Case Report
Woong Mo Kim, Seong Wook Jeong, Sang Hyun Kwak, Sung Su Chung, Chang Young Jeong
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2003;18(1):39-42.
  • 1,828 View
  • 22 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Placement of endotracheal tube, even for extremely short periods, can result in injury to laryngeal and tracheal tissue. This may be clinically insignificant, but in rare cases, it could be life threatening and results in permanent disability. Especially, tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) is a serious and challenging problem because it may contaminate the tracheobronchial tree and interfere with nutrition. This uncommon but lethal complication has been reported to be associated with certain risk factors in tracheally intubated patients, and better knowledge of these factors could reduce the incidence of post-intubation TEF. We report a case of 49-year old male patient who has acquired TEF caused by endotracheal intubation and positive pressure ventilation.

ACC : Acute and Critical Care