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Volume 38 (1); February 2023
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Review Articles
Basic science and research
Extracorporeal circulation models in small animals: beyond the limits of preclinical research
Mukhammad Kayumov, Reverien Habimana, Dowan Kim, Francis O Obiweluozor, In Seok Jeong, Hwa Jin Cho
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(1):1-7.   Published online February 28, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.00381
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) use has remarkably increased in recent years. Although ECMO has become essential for patients with refractory cardiac and respiratory failure, extracorporeal circulation (ECC) is associated with significant complications. Small-animal models of ECC have been developed and widely used to better understand ECC-induced pathophysiology. This review article summarizes the development of small-animal ECC models, including the animal species, circuit configuration, priming, perioperative procedures, cannulation, and future perspectives of small-animal ECMO models.

Citations

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  • Multiorgan recovery in a cadaver body using mild hypothermic ECMO treatment in a murine model
    Nodir Madrahimov, Vitalii Mutsenko, Ruslan Natanov, Dejan Radaković, André Klapproth, Mohamed Hassan, Mathias Rosenfeldt, Florian Kleefeldt, Ivan Aleksic, Süleyman Ergün, Christoph Otto, Rainer G. Leyh, Constanze Bening
    Intensive Care Medicine Experimental.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Post-Mortem Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Perfusion Rat Model: A Feasibility Study
    Matthias Manfred Deininger, Carl-Friedrich Benner, Lasse Johannes Strudthoff, Steffen Leonhardt, Christian Simon Bruells, Gernot Marx, Christian Bleilevens, Thomas Breuer
    Animals.2023; 13(22): 3532.     CrossRef
Nursing
Theoretical definition of nurse–conscious mechanically ventilated patient communication: a scoping review with qualitative content analysis
Arezoo Mohamadkhani Ghiasvand, Meimanat Hosseini, Foroozan Atashzadeh-Shoorideh
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(1):8-20.   Published online February 27, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.01039
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Providing critical nursing care for conscious mechanically ventilated patients is mediated via effective communication. This study aimed to identify and map the antecedents, attributes, consequences, and definition of nurse–conscious mechanically ventilated patient communication (N-CMVPC). This scoping review was conducted by searching the Cochrane Library and the CINAHL, EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases, between 2001 and 2021. The keywords queried included "nurses," "mechanically ventilated patients," "mechanical ventilation," "intubated patients," "communication," "interaction," "relationships," "nurse–patient communication," "nurse–patient relations," "intensive care units," and "critical care." Studies related to communication with healthcare personnel or family members were excluded. The results indicated that N-CMVPC manifests as a set of attributes in communication experiences, emotions, methods, and behaviors of the nurse and the patient and is classified into three main themes, nurse communication, patient communication, and quantitative-qualitative aspects. N-CMVPC is a complex, multidimensional, and multi-factor concept. It is often nurse-controlled and can express itself as questions, sentences, or commands in the context of experiences, feelings, and positive or negative behaviors involving the nurse and the patient.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • A Study on Nurses' Communication Experiences with Intubation Patients
    Ye Rim Kim, Hye Ree Park, Mee Kyung Shin
    The Korean Journal of Rehabilitation Nursing.2023; 26(1): 28.     CrossRef
  • The Application of Augmentative and Alternative Communication in Intubated Patients in the Intensive Care Unit: A Scoping Review
    Mee-Kyung Shin, Hyejin Jeon
    The Korean Journal of Rehabilitation Nursing.2023; 26(2): 97.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Surgery
Adjuvant intravenous immunoglobulin administration on postoperative critically ill patients with secondary peritonitis: a retrospective study
Young Un Choi, Jun Gi Kim, Ji Young Jang, Tae Hwa Go, Kwangmin Kim, Keum Seok Bae, Hongjin Shim
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(1):21-30.   Published online February 27, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.01515
Correction in: Acute Crit Care 2023;38(2):250
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
The use of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in sepsis patients from bowel perforation is still debatable. However, few studies have evaluated the effect of IVIG as an adjuvant therapy after source control. This study aimed to analyze the effect of IVIG in critically ill patients who underwent surgery due to secondary peritonitis.
Methods
In total, 646 medical records of surgical patients who were treated for secondary peritonitis were retrospectively analyzed. IVIG use, initial clinical data, and changes in Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score over the 7-day admission in the intensive care unit for sepsis check, base excess, and delta neutrophil index (DNI) were analyzed. Mortalities and periodic profiles were assessed. Propensity scoring matching as comparative analysis was performed in the IVIG group and non-IVIG group.
Results
General characteristics were not different between the two groups. The survival curve did not show a significantly reduced mortality in the IVIG. Moreover, the IVIG group did not have a lower risk ratio for mortality than the non-IVIG group. However, when the DNI were compared during the first 7 days, the reduction rate in the IVIG group was statistically faster than in the non-IVIG group (P<0.01).
Conclusions
The use of IVIG was significantly associated with faster decrease in DNI which means faster reduction of inflammation. Since the immune system is rapidly activated, the additional use of IVIG after source control surgery in abdominal sepsis patients, especially those with immunocompromised patients can be considered. However, furthermore clinical studies are needed.

Citations

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  • USING INTRAVENOUS IMMUNOGLOBULIN IN A PATIENT WITH SEPTIC SHOCK AND MULTIPLE COMORBIDITIES: A REVIEW BASED ON A CLINICAL CASE
    Nataliya Matolynets, Jacek Rolinski, Khrystyna Lishchuk-Yakymovych, Yaroslav Tolstyak
    Proceeding of the Shevchenko Scientific Society. Medical Sciences.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Infection
Evaluating the use of the respiratory-rate oxygenation index as a predictor of high-flow nasal cannula oxygen failure in COVID-19
Scott Weerasuriya, Savvas Vlachos, Ahmed Bobo, Namitha Birur Jayaprabhu, Lauren Matthews, Adam R Blackstock, Victoria Metaxa
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(1):31-40.   Published online February 27, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.01081
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
It can be challenging for clinicians to predict which patients with respiratory failure secondary to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) will fail on high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen and require escalation of therapy. This study set out to evaluate the association between the respiratory rate-oxygenation index (ROX) and HFNC failure in such patients and to assess whether ROX trajectory correlates with treatment failure.
Methods
This was a single-centre, retrospective, observational study of patients with COVID-19 requiring HFNC, conducted over a 3-month period. ROX was calculated as “pulse-oximetry oxygen saturation (SpO2) over the fractional inspired oxygen concentration (FiO2)/respiratory rate” for each patient at 2, 4, and 12 hours from starting HFNC. HFNC failure was defined as escalation to continuous positive airway pressure ventilation or invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Time-to-event analyses were performed to account for the longitudinal data set and time-dependent variables.
Results
We included 146 patients. Ninety-three (63.7%) experienced HFNC failure, with 53 (36.3%) requiring IMV. Higher ROX values were associated with a lower subhazard of HFNC failure on time-to-HFNC failure analysis (subhazard ratio, 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18–0.46; P<0.001). This remained true after controlling for informative censoring. Median ROX values changed differentially over time, increasing in the HFNC success group (0.06 per hour; 95% CI, 0.05–0.08; P<0.001) but not in the HFNC failure group (0.004 per hour; 95% CI, –0.05 to 0.08; P=0.890).
Conclusions
A higher ROX is associated with a lower risk of HFNC failure. Monitoring ROX trajectory over time may help identify patients at risk of treatment failure. This has potential clinical applications; however, future prospective studies are required.
Infection
Predicting factors associated with prolonged intensive care unit stay of patients with COVID-19
Won Ho Han, Jae Hoon Lee, June Young Chun, Young Ju Choi, Youseok Kim, Mira Han, Jee Hee Kim
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(1):41-48.   Published online February 22, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.01235
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Predicting the length of stay (LOS) for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) is essential for efficient use of ICU resources. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients with severe COVID-19 based on their clinical care and determined the predictive factors associated with prolonged LOS. Methods: We included 96 COVID-19 patients who received oxygen therapy at a high-flow nasal cannula level or above after ICU admission during March 2021 to February 2022. The demographic characteristics at the time of ICU admission and results of severity analysis (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment [SOFA], Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation [APACHE] II), blood tests, and ICU treatments were analyzed using a logistic regression model. Additionally, blood tests (C-reactive protein, D-dimer, and the PaO2 to FiO2 ratio [P/F ratio]) were performed on days 3 and 5 of ICU admission to identify factors associated with prolonged LOS. Results: Univariable analyses showed statistically significant results for SOFA score at the time of ICU admission, C-reactive protein level, high-dose steroids, mechanical ventilation (MV) care, continuous renal replacement therapy, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and prone position. Multivariable analysis showed that MV care and P/F ratio on hospital day 5 were independent factors for prolonged ICU LOS. For D-dimer, no significant variation was observed at admission; however, after days 3 and 5 days of admission, significant between-group variation was detected. Conclusions: MV care and P/F ratio on hospital day 5 are independent factors that can predict prolonged LOS for COVID-19 patients.

Citations

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  • Predictors of prolonged ventilator weaning and mortality in critically ill patients with COVID-19
    Marcella M Musumeci, Bruno Valle Pinheiro2, Luciana Dias Chiavegato1, Danielle Silva Almeida Phillip1, Flavia R Machado3, Fabrício Freires3, Osvaldo Shigueomi Beppu1, Jaquelina Sonoe Ota Arakaki1, Roberta Pulcheri Ramos1
    Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia.2023; : e20230131.     CrossRef
  • The distorted memories of patients treated in the intensive care unit during the COVID-19 pandemic: A qualitative study
    Gisela Vogel, Ulla Forinder, Anna Sandgren, Christer Svensen, Eva Joelsson-Alm
    Intensive and Critical Care Nursing.2023; 79: 103522.     CrossRef
Pulmonary
Characteristics and outcomes of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease admitted to the intensive care unit due to acute hypercapnic respiratory failure
Türkay Akbaş, Harun Güneş
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(1):49-56.   Published online February 27, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.01011
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
The study aimed to describe the clinical course, outcomes, and prognostic factors of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. Methods: This retrospective study involved patients with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure due to COPD of any cause admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) support between December 2015 and February 2020. Results: One hundred patients were evaluated. The main causes of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure were bronchitis, pneumonia, and heart failure. The patients’ mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score was 23.0±7.2, and their IMV rate was 43%. ICU, in-hospital, and 90-day mortality rates were 21%, 29%, and 39%, respectively. Non-survivors had more pneumonia, shock within the first 24 hours of admission, IMV, vasopressor use, and renal replacement therapy, along with higher APACHE II scores, lower admission albumin levels and PaO2/ FiO2 ratios, and longer ICU and hospital stays than survivors. Logistic regression analysis identified APACHE II score (odds ratio [OR], 1.157; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.017–1.317; P=0.026), admission PaO2/FiO2 ratio (OR, 0.989; 95% CI, 0.978–0.999; P=0.046), and vasopressor use (OR, 8.827; 95% CI, 1.650–47.215; P=0.011) as predictors of ICU mortality. APACHE II score (OR, 1.099; 95% CI, 1.021–1.182; P=0.011) and admission albumin level (OR, 0.169; 95% CI, 0.056–0.514; P=0.002) emerged as predictors of 90-day mortality. Conclusions: APACHE II scores, the PaO2/FiO2 ratio, vasopressor use, and albumin levels are significant short-term mortality predictors in severely ill COPD patients with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure.

Citations

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  • COPD Exacerbation: Why It Is Important to Avoid ICU Admission
    Irene Prediletto, Gilda Giancotti, Stefano Nava
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2023; 12(10): 3369.     CrossRef
Infection
Methylprednisolone pulse therapy for critically ill patients with COVID-19: a cohort study
Keum-Ju Choi, Soo Kyun Jung, Kyung Chan Kim, Eun Jin Kim
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(1):57-67.   Published online February 7, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00941
Correction in: Acute Crit Care 2023;38(2):249
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
The guidelines recommend the use of dexamethasone 6 mg or an equivalent dose in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who require supplemental oxygen. Given that the severity of COVID-19 varies, we investigated the effect of a pulse dose of corticosteroids on the clinical course of critically ill patients with COVID-19. Methods: This single-center, retrospective cohort study was conducted between September and December 2021, which was when the Delta variant of the COVID-19 virus was predominant. We evaluated the mortality and oxygenation of severe to critical COVID-19 cases between groups that received dexamethasone 6 mg for 10 days (control group) and methylprednisolone 250 mg/day for 3 days (pulse group). Results: Among 44 patients, 14 and 30 patients were treated with control steroids and pulse steroids, respectively. There was no difference in disease severity, time from COVID-19 diagnosis to steroid administration, or use of remdesivir or antibacterial agents between the two groups. The pulse steroid group showed a significant improvement in oxygenation before and after steroid treatment (P<0.001) compared with the control steroid group (P=0.196). There was no difference in in-hospital mortality (P=0.186); however, the pulse steroid group had a lower mortality rate (23.3%) than the control steroid group (42.9%). There was a significant difference in the length of hospital stay between both two groups (P=0.039). Conclusions: Pulse steroids showed no mortality benefit but were associated with oxygenation improvement and shorter hospital stay than control steroids. Hyperglycemia should be carefully monitored with pulse steroids.
Epidemiology
Risk factors for hospital mortality in intensive care unit survivors: a retrospective cohort study
Luiza Gabriella Antonio e Silva, Claudia Maria Dantas de Maio Carrilho, Thalita Bento Talizin, Lucienne Tibery Queiroz Cardoso, Edson Lopes Lavado, Cintia Magalhães Carvalho Grion
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(1):68-75.   Published online February 27, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.01375
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Deaths can occur after a patient has survived treatment for a serious illness in an intensive care unit (ICU). Mortality rates after leaving the ICU can be considered indicators of health care quality. This study aims to describe risk factors and mortality of surviving patients discharged from an ICU in a university hospital. Methods: Retrospective cohort study carried out from January 2017 to December 2018. Data on age, sex, length of hospital stay, diagnosis on admission to the ICU, hospital discharge outcome, presence of infection, and Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) III prognostic score were collected. Infected patients were considered as those being treated for an infection on discharge from the ICU. Patients were divided into survivors and non-survivors on leaving the hospital. The association between the studied variables was performed using the logistic regression model. Results: A total of 1,025 patients who survived hospitalization in the ICU were analyzed, of which 212 (20.7%) died after leaving the ICU. When separating the groups of survivors and non-survivors according to hospital outcome, the median age was higher among non-survivors. Longer hospital stays and higher SAPS III values were observed among non-survivors. In the logistic regression, the variables age, length of hospital stay, SAPS III, presence of infection, and readmission to the ICU were associated with hospital mortality. Conclusions: Infection on ICU discharge, ICU readmission, age, length of hospital stay, and SAPS III increased risk of death in ICU survivors.
Infection
Study of the gut microbiome as a novel target for prevention of hospital-associated infections in intensive care unit patients
Suzan Ahmed Elfiky, Shwikar Mahmoud Ahmed, Ahmed Mostafa Elmenshawy, Gehad Mahmoud Sultan, Sara Lotfy Asser
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(1):76-85.   Published online February 23, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.01116
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are increasing due to the spread of multi-drugresistant organisms. Gut dysbiosis in an intensive care unit (ICU) patients at admission showed an altered abundance of some bacterial genera associated with the occurrence of HAIs and mortality. In the present study, we investigated the pattern of the gut microbiome in ICU patients at admission to correlate it with the development of HAIs during ICU stay. Methods: Twenty patients admitted to an ICU with a cross-matched control group of 30 healthy subjects of matched age and sex. Quantitative SYBR green real-time polymerase chain reaction was done for the identification and quantitation of selected bacteria. Results: Out of those twenty patients, 35% developed ventilator-associated pneumonia during their ICU stay. Gut microbiome analysis showed a significant decrease in Firmicutes and Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio in ICU patients in comparison to the control and in patients who developed HAIs in comparison to the control group and patients who did not develop HAIs. There was a statistically significant increase in Bacteroides in comparison to the control group. There was a statistically significant decrease in Bifidobacterium and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and an increase in Lactobacilli in comparison to the control group with a negative correlation between Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score and Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes and Prevotella to Bacteroides ratios. Conclusions: Gut dysbiosis of patients at the time of admission highlights the importance of identification of the microbiome of patients admitted to the ICU as a target for preventing of HAIs

Citations

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  • Antimicrobial Peptides and Their Assemblies
    Ana Maria Carmona-Ribeiro
    Future Pharmacology.2023; 3(4): 763.     CrossRef
Nephrology
Impact of intradialytic hypotension on mortality following the transition from continuous renal replacement therapy to intermittent hemodialysis
Seong Geun Kim, Donghwan Yun, Jinwoo Lee, Yong Chul Kim, Dong Ki Kim, Kook-Hwan Oh, Kwon Wook Joo, Yon Su Kim, Seung Seok Han
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(1):86-94.   Published online October 26, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00948
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
The transition of dialysis modalities from continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) to intermittent hemodialysis (iHD) is frequently conducted during the recovery phase of critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. Herein, we addressed the occurrence of intradialytic hypotension (IDH) after this transition, and its association with the mortality risk. Methods: A total of 541 patients with acute kidney injury who attempted to transition from CRRT to iHD at Seoul National University Hospital, Korea from 2010 to 2020 were retrospectively collected. IDH was defined as a discontinuation of dialysis because of hemodynamic instability plus a nadir systolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg or a decrease in systolic blood pressure ≥30 mm Hg during the first session of iHD. Odds ratios (ORs) of outcomes, such as in-hospital mortality and weaning from RRT, were measured using a logistic regression model after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: IDH occurred in 197 patients (36%), and their mortality rate (44%) was higher than that of those without IDH (19%; OR, 2.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.70–4.08). For patients exhibiting IDH, the iHD sessions delayed successful weaning from RRT (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.43–0.90) compared with sessions on those without IDH. Factors such as low blood pressure, high pulse rate, low urine output, use of mechanical ventilations and vasopressors, and hypoalbuminemia were associated with IDH risk. Conclusions: IDH occurrence following the transition from CRRT to iHD is associated with high mortality and delayed weaning from RRT.
Trauma
Selection of appropriate reference creatinine estimate for acute kidney injury diagnosis in patients with severe trauma
Kangho Lee, Dongyeon Ryu, Hohyun Kim, Sungjin Park, Sangbong Lee, Chanik Park, Gilhwan Kim, Sunhyun Kim, Nahyeon Lee
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(1):95-103.   Published online February 27, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.01046
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
In patients with severe trauma, the diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) is important because it is a predictive factor for poor prognosis and can affect patient care. The diagnosis and staging of AKI are based on change in serum creatinine (SCr) levels from baseline. However, baseline creatinine levels in patients with traumatic injuries are often unknown, making the diagnosis of AKI in trauma patients difficult. This study aimed to enhance the accuracy of AKI diagnosis in trauma patients by presenting an appropriate reference creatinine estimate (RCE). Methods: We reviewed adult patients with severe trauma requiring intensive care unit admission between 2015 and 2019 (n=3,228) at a single regional trauma center in South Korea. AKI was diagnosed based on the current guideline published by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes organization. AKI was determined using the following RCEs: estimated SCr75-modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD), trauma MDRD (TMDRD), admission creatinine level, and first-day creatinine nadir. We assessed inclusivity, prognostic ability, and incrementality using the different RCEs. Results: The incidence of AKI varied from 15% to 46% according to the RCE used. The receiver operating characteristic curve of TMDRD used to predict mortality and the need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) had the highest value and was statistically significant (0.797, P<0.001; 0.890, P=0.002, respectively). In addition, the use of TMDRD resulted in a mortality prognostic ability and the need for RRT was incremental with AKI stage. Conclusions: In this study, TMDRD was feasible as a RCE, resulting in optimal post-traumatic AKI diagnosis and prognosis.
CPR/Resuscitation
Lower limb muscle matters in patients with hypoxic brain injury following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest
Dong-Hyun Jang, Seung Min Park, Dong Keon Lee, Dong Won Kim, Chang Woo Im, You Hwan Jo, Kui Ja Lee
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(1):104-112.   Published online February 27, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.01389
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
There are conflicting results regarding the association between body mass index and the prognosis of cardiac arrest patients. We investigated the association of the composition and distribution of muscle and fat with neurologic outcomes at hospital discharge in successfully resuscitated out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients. Methods: This prospective, single-centre, observational study involved adult OHCA patients, conducted between April 2019 and June 2021. The ratio of total skeletal muscle, upper limb muscle, lower limb muscle, and total fat to body weight was measured using InBody S10, a bioimpedance analyser, after achieving the return of spontaneous circulation. Restricted cubic spline curves with four knots were used to examine the relationship between total skeletal muscle, upper limb muscle, and lower limb muscle relative to total body weight and neurologic outcome at discharge. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to assess an independent association. Results: A total of 66 patients were enrolled in the study. The proportion of total muscle and lower limb muscle positively correlated with the possibility of having a good neurologic outcome. The proportion of lower limb muscle showed an independent association in the multivariable analysis (adjusted odds ratio, 2.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–13.98), and its optimal cut-off value calculated through receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was 23.1%, which can predict a good neurological outcome. Conclusions: A higher proportion of lower limb muscle to body weight was independently associated with the probability of having a good neurologic outcome in OHCA patients.
Trauma
Association of Glasgow coma scale and endotracheal intubation in predicting mortality among patients admitted to the intensive care unit
Nader Markazi Moghaddam, Mohammad Fathi, Sanaz Zargar Balaye Jame, Mohammad Darvishi, Morteza Mortazavi
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(1):113-121.   Published online February 22, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00927
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
We assessed predictors of mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU) and investigated if Glasgow coma scale (GCS) is associated with mortality in patients undergoing endotracheal intubation (EI). Methods: From February 2020, we performed a 1-year study on 2,055 adult patients admitted to the ICU of two teaching hospitals. The outcome was mortality during ICU stay and the predictors were patients’ demographic, clinical, and laboratory features. Results: EI was associated with a decreased risk for mortality compared with similar patients (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.32; P=0.030). This shows that EI had been performed correctly with proper indications. Increasing age (AOR, 1.04; P<0.001) or blood pressure (AOR, 1.01; P<0.001), respiratory problems (AOR, 3.24; P<0.001), nosocomial infection (AOR, 1.64; P=0.014), diabetes (AOR, 5.69; P<0.001), history of myocardial infarction (AOR, 2.52; P<0.001), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AOR, 3.93; P<0.001), immunosuppression (AOR, 3.15; P<0.001), and the use of anesthetics/sedatives/hypnotics for reasons other than EI (AOR, 4.60; P<0.001) were directly; and GCS (AOR, 0.84; P<0.001) was inversely related to mortality. In patients with trauma surgeries (AOR, 0.62; P=0.014) or other surgical categories (AOR, 0.61; P=0.024) undergoing EI, GCS had an inverse relation with mortality (accuracy=82.6%, area under the receiver operator characteristic curve=0.81). Conclusions: A variety of features affected the risk for mortality in patients admitted to the ICU. Considering GCS score for EI had the potential of affecting prognosis in subgroups of patients such as those with trauma surgeries or other surgical categories.
Liver
Alcohol use disorder in the intensive care unit a highly morbid condition, but chemical dependency discussion improves outcomes
Kristin Colling, Alexandra K. Kraft, Melissa L. Harry
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(1):122-133.   Published online January 10, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00584
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Alcohol use disorders (AUD) are common in patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) and increase the risk for worse outcomes. In this study, we describe factors associated with patient mortality after ICU admission and the effect of chemical dependency (CD) counseling on outcomes in the year following ICU admission. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patient demographics, hospital data, and documentation of CD counseling by medical providers for all ICU patients with AUD admitted to our institution between January 2017 and March 2019. Primary outcomes were in-hospital and 1-year mortality. Results: Of the 527 patients with AUD requiring ICU care, median age was 56 years (range, 18–86). Both in-hospital (12%) and 1-year mortality rates (27%) were high. Rural patients, comorbidities, older age, need for mechanical ventilation, and complications were associated with increased risk of in-hospital and 1-year mortality. CD counseling was documented for 73% of patients, and 50% of these patients accepted alcohol treatment or resources prior to discharge. CD evaluation and acceptance was associated with a significantly decreased rate of readmission for liver or alcohol-related issues (36% vs. 58%; odds ratio [OR], 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27–0.61) and 1-year mortality (7% vs. 19.5%; OR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.16–0.64). CD evaluation alone, regardless of patient acceptance, was associated with a significantly decreased 1-year post-discharge mortality rate (12% vs. 23%; OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.25–0.77). Conclusions: ICU patients with AUD had high in-hospital and 1-year mortality. CD evaluation, regardless of patient acceptance, was associated with a significant decrease in 1-year mortality
Gastroenterology
The diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography over manual aspiration for gastric reserve volume estimation in critically ill patients
Rahul Sharma, Ravi Kant Dogra, Jyoti Pathania, Arti Sharma
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(1):134-141.   Published online February 22, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00955
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Although gastric reserve volume (GRV) is a surrogate marker of gastrointestinal dysfunction and feeding intolerance, there is ambiguity in its estimation due to problems associated with its measurement. Introduction of point-of-care ultrasound as a tool for anesthetists kindled interest in its use for GRV estimation. Methods: In this prospective observational study, we recruited 57 critically ill patients and analyzed 586 samples of GRV obtained by both ultrasonography (USG) and manual aspiration. Results: The analysis showed that USG-guided GRV was significantly correlated (r=0.788, P<0.001) and in positive agreement with manual aspiration based on Bland-Altman plot, with a mean difference of 8.50±14.84 (95% confidence interval, 7.389–9.798). The upper and lower limits of agreement were 37.7 and –20.5, respectively, within the ±1.96 standard deviation (P<0.001). The respective sensitivity and positive predictive value, specificity and negative predictive value, and area under the curve of USG for feeding intolerance were 66.67%, 98.15%, and 0.82%, with 96.49% diagnostic accuracy. Conclusions: Ultrasonographic estimation of GRV was positively, significantly correlated and in agreement with the manual aspiration method and estimated feeding intolerance earlier. Routine use of gastric USG could avoid clinical situations where feeding status is unclear and there is high risk of aspiration and could become a standard practice of critical care.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Gastrointestinal function in critically ill patients
    Annika Reintam Blaser, Kaspar F. Bachmann, Adam M. Deane
    Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care.2023; 26(5): 463.     CrossRef

ACC : Acute and Critical Care