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Pulmonary
Early bronchoscopy in severe pneumonia patients in intensive care unit: insights from the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care-IV database analysis
Chiwon Ahn, Yeonkyung Park, Yoonseok Oh
Acute Crit Care. 2024;39(1):179-185.   Published online February 15, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.01165
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Pneumonia frequently leads to intensive care unit (ICU) admission and is associated with a high mortality risk. This study aimed to assess the impact of early bronchoscopy administered within 3 days of ICU admission on mortality in patients with pneumonia using the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care-IV (MIMIC-IV) database. Methods: A single-center retrospective analysis was conducted using the MIMIC-IV data from 2008 to 2019. Adult ICU-admitted patients diagnosed with pneumonia were included in this study. The patients were stratified into two cohorts based on whether they underwent early bronchoscopy. The primary outcome was the 28-day mortality rate. Propensity score matching was used to balance confounding variables. Results: In total, 8,916 patients with pneumonia were included in the analysis. Among them, 783 patients underwent early bronchoscopy within 3 days of ICU admission, whereas 8,133 patients did not undergo early bronchoscopy. The primary outcome of the 28-day mortality between two groups had no significant difference even after propensity matched cohorts (22.7% vs. 24.0%, P=0.589). Patients undergoing early bronchoscopy had prolonged ICU (P<0.001) and hospital stays (P<0.001) and were less likely to be discharged to home (P<0.001). Conclusions: Early bronchoscopy in severe pneumonia patients in the ICU did not reduce mortality but was associated with longer hospital stays, suggesting it was used in more severe cases. Therefore, when considering bronchoscopy for these patients, it's important to tailor the decision to each individual case, thoughtfully balancing the possible advantages with the related risks.
Nursing
Effect of fourth hourly oropharyngeal suctioning on ventilator-associated events in patients requiring mechanical ventilation in intensive care units of a tertiary care center in South India: a randomized controlled trial
Khanjana Borah, Lakshmi Ramamoorthy, Muthapillai Senthilnathan, Rajeswari Murugesan, Hmar Thiak Lalthanthuami, Rani Subramaniyan
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(4):460-468.   Published online November 24, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.01501
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a necessary life-saving measure for critically ill patients. Ventilator-associated events (VAEs) are potentially avoidable complications associated with MV that can double the rate of death. Oral care and oropharyngeal suctioning, although neglected procedures, play a vital role in the prevention of VAE.
Methods
A randomized controlled trial was conducted in the intensive care units to compare the effect of fourth hourly oropharyngeal suctioning with the standard oral care protocol on VAE among patients on MV. One hundred twenty mechanically ventilated patients who were freshly intubated and expected to be on ventilator support for the next 72 hours were randomly allocated to the control or intervention groups. The intervention was fourth hourly oropharyngeal suctioning along with the standard oral care procedure. The control group received standard oral care (i.e., thrice a day) and on-demand oral suctioning. On the 3rd and 7th days following the intervention, endotracheal aspirates were sent to rule out ventilator-associated pneumonia.
Results
Both groups were homogenous at baseline with respect to their clinical characteristics. The intervention group had fewer VAEs (56.7%) than the control group (78.3%) which was significant at P<0.01. A significant reduction in the status of “positive culture” on ET aspirate also been observed following the 3rd day of the intervention (P<0.001).
Conclusions
One of the most basic preventive strategies is providing oral care. Oropharyngeal suctioning is also an important component of oral care that prevents microaspiration. Hence, fourth-hourly oropharyngeal suctioning with standard oral care significantly reduces the incidence of VAE.
Pulmonary
Combining reservoir mask oxygenation with high-flow nasal cannula in the treatment of hypoxemic respiratory failure among patients with COVID-19 pneumonia: a retrospective cohort study
Ivan Gur, Ronen Zalts, Yaniv Dotan, Khitam Hussain, Ami Neuberger, Eyal Fuchs
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(4):435-441.   Published online November 23, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.00451
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  • 1 Web of Science
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
Concerns regarding positive-pressure-ventilation for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hypoxemia led the search for alternative oxygenation techniques. This study aimed to assess one such method, dual oxygenation, i.e., the addition of a reservoir mask (RM) on top of a high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC).
Methods
In this retrospective cohort study, the records of all patients hospitalized with COVID-19 during 2020–2022 were reviewed. Patients over the age of 18 years with hypoxemia necessitating HFNC were included. Exclusion criteria were positive-pressure-ventilation for any indication other than hypoxemic respiratory failure, transfer to another facility while still on HFNC and “do-not-intubate/resuscitate” orders. The primary outcome was mortality within 30 days from the first application of HFNC. Secondary outcomes were intubation and admission to the intensive care unit.
Results
Of 659 patients included in the final analysis, 316 were treated with dual oxygenation and 343 with HFNC alone. Propensity for treatment was estimated based on background diagnoses, laboratories and vital signs upon admission, gender and glucocorticoid dose. Inverse probability of treatment weighted regression including age, body mass index, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and respiratory rate oxygenation index showed treatment with dual oxygenation to be associated with lower 30-day mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.615; 95% confidence interval, 0.469–0.809). Differences in the secondary outcomes did not reach statistical significance.
Conclusions
Our study suggests that the addition of RM on top of HFNC may be associated with decreased mortality in patients with severe COVID-19 hypoxemia.
Pulmonary
Risk factors for mortality in intensive care unit patients with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia pneumonia in South Korea
Yong Hoon Lee, Jaehee Lee, Byunghyuk Yu, Won Kee Lee, Sun Ha Choi, Ji Eun Park, Hyewon Seo, Seung Soo Yoo, Shin Yup Lee, Seung-Ick Cha, Chang Ho Kim, Jae Yong Park
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(4):442-451.   Published online November 21, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.00682
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  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has been increasingly recognized as an opportunistic pathogen associated with high morbidity and mortality. Data on the prognostic factors associated with S. maltophilia pneumonia in patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) are lacking.
Methods
We conducted a retrospective analysis of data from 117 patients with S. maltophilia pneumonia admitted to the ICUs of two tertiary referral hospitals in South Korea between January 2011 and December 2022. To assess risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality, multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed.
Results
The median age of the study population was 71 years. Ventilator-associated pneumonia was 76.1% of cases, and the median length of ICU stay before the first isolation of S. maltophilia was 15 days. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 82.1%, and factors independently associated with mortality were age (odds ratio [OR], 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00–1.09; P=0.046), Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (OR, 1.21; 95%; CI, 1.02–1.43; P=0.025), corticosteroid use (OR, 4.19; 95% CI, 1.26–13.91; P=0.019), and polymicrobial infection (OR, 95% CI 0.07–0.69). However, the impact of appropriate antibiotic therapy on mortality was insignificant. In a subgroup of patients who received appropriate antibiotic therapy (n=58), antibiotic treatment modality-related variables, including combination or empirical therapy, also showed no significant association with survival.
Conclusions
Patients with S. maltophilia pneumonia in ICU have high mortality rates. Older age, higher SOFA score, and corticosteroid use were independently associated with increased in-hospital mortality, whereas polymicrobial infection was associated with lower mortality. The effect of appropriate antibiotic therapy on prognosis was insignificant.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Outbreak in an ICU: Investigation of Possible Routes of Transmission and Implementation of Infection Control Measures
    Maria Luisa Cristina, Marina Sartini, Gianluca Ottria, Elisa Schinca, Giulia Adriano, Leonello Innocenti, Marco Lattuada, Stefania Tigano, David Usiglio, Filippo Del Puente
    Pathogens.2024; 13(5): 369.     CrossRef
Pulmonary
Incidence and risk factors associated with progression to severe pneumonia among adults with non-severe Legionella pneumonia
Jin-Young Huh, Sang-Ho Choi, Kyung-Wook Jo, Jin Won Huh, Sang-Bum Hong, Tae Sun Shim, Chae-Man Lim, Younsuck Koh
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(4):543-549.   Published online October 21, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00521
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Legionella species are important causative organisms of severe pneumonia. However, data are limited on predictors of progression to severe Legionella pneumonia (LP). Therefore, the risk factors for LP progression from non-severe to the severe form were investigated in the present study. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study that included adult LP patients admitted to a 2,700-bed referral center between January 2005 and December 2019. Results: A total of 155 patients were identified during the study period; 58 patients (37.4%) initially presented with severe pneumonia and 97 (62.6%) patients with non-severe pneumonia. Among the 97 patients, 28 (28.9%) developed severe pneumonia during hospitalization and 69 patients (71.1%) recovered without progression to severe pneumonia. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed platelet count ≤150,000/mm3 (odds ratio [OR], 2.923; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.100–8.105; P=0.034) and delayed antibiotic treatment >1 day (OR, 3.092; 95% CI, 1.167–8.727; P=0.026) were significant independent factors associated with progression to severe pneumonia. Conclusions: A low platelet count and delayed antibiotic treatment were significantly associated with the progression of non-severe LP to severe LP.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Atraumatic Splenic Rupture in Legionella pneumophila Pneumonia
    Elliott Worku, Dominic Adam Worku, Salim Surani
    Case Reports in Infectious Diseases.2023; 2023: 1.     CrossRef
  • Short- and long-term prognosis of patients with community-acquired Legionella or pneumococcal pneumonia diagnosed by urinary antigen testing
    Leyre Serrano, Luis Alberto Ruiz, Silvia Perez-Fernandez, Pedro Pablo España, Ainhoa Gomez, Beatriz Gonzalez, Ane Uranga, Sonia Castro, Milagros Iriberri, Rafael Zalacain
    International Journal of Infectious Diseases.2023; 134: 106.     CrossRef
  • Case report: Fatal Legionella infection diagnosed via by metagenomic next-generation sequencing in a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia
    Chunhong Bu, Shuai Lei, Linguang Chen, Yanqiu Xie, Guoli Zheng, Liwei Hua
    Frontiers in Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Pulmonary
The frequency and seasonal distribution of viral infection in patients with community-acquired pneumonia and its impact on the prognosis
Kyung Jun Kim, Doh Hyung Kim
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(4):550-560.   Published online October 6, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00682
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Studies on the effects of viral coinfection on bacterial pneumonia are still scarce in South Korea. This study investigates the frequency and seasonal distribution of virus infection and its impact on the prognosis in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Methods: The medical records of CAP patients with definite etiology, such as viruses and bacteria, were retrospectively reviewed. Their epidemiologic and clinical characteristics, microbiologic test results, the severity of illness, and 30-day mortality were analyzed. Results: Among 150 study subjects, 68 patients (45.3%) had viral infection alone, 47 (31.3%) had bacterial infection alone, and 35 (23.3%) had viral-bacterial coinfection, respectively. Among 103 patients with viral infections, Influenza A virus (44%) was the most common virus, followed by rhinovirus (19%), influenza B (13%), and adenovirus (6%). The confusion-urea-respiratory rateblood pressure-age of 65 (CURB-65) score of the viral-bacterial coinfection was higher than that of the viral infection (median [interquartile range]: 2.0 [1.0–4.0] vs. 2.0 [0.3–3.0], P=0.029). The 30-day mortality of the viral infection alone group (2.9%) was significantly lower than that of bacterial infection alone (19.1%) and viral-bacterial coinfection (25.7%) groups (Bonferroni-corrected P<0.05). Viral-bacterial coinfection was the stronger predictor of 30-day mortality in CAP (odds ratio [OR], 18.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.0–118.3; P=0.002) than bacterial infection alone (OR, 6.3; 95% CI, 1.1–36.4; P=0.041), compared to viral infection alone on the multivariate analysis. Conclusions: The etiology of viral infection in CAP is different according to regional characteristics. Viral-bacterial coinfection showed a worse prognosis than bacterial infection alone in patients with CAP.
Neurology
Early assessment of aspiration risk in acute stroke by fiberoptic endoscopy in critically ill patients
Mohamed Saad Abdelaziz Elsyaad, Akram Muhammad Fayed, Mohamed Mostafa Abdel Salam Megahed, Nesrine Hazem Hamouda, Ahmed Moustafa Elmenshawy
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(3):276-285.   Published online June 27, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2021.01375
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) has been recommended to assess aspiration in stroke. This study aimed to determine the diagnostic and prognostic roles of FEES in the early assessment of aspiration, intensive care unit (ICU) stay and mortality in acute stroke patients.
Methods
Fifty-two patients with acute stroke admitted to the Alexandria Main University Hospital were included. Complete examinations and assessment of aspiration using the 8-point penetration-aspiration scale (PAS) with FEES protocol were performed.
Results
The patients were classified into three groups: normal with no or low risk of aspiration (n=15, 27.3%; PAS level 1), low to moderate risk (n=8, 14.5%; PAS level 2–4), and high risk (n=32, 58.2%; PAS ≥5). There was high incidence of aspiration pneumonia, prolonged ICU stay, and mortality in both moderate- and high-risk groups (P=0.001, P<0.001, and P<0.001, respectively). The PAS score predicted aspiration pneumonia (hospital-acquired pneumonia) with sensitivity and specificity of 80.0% and 76.0%, respectively (negative predictive value [NPV], 76.0; positive predictive value [PPV], 80.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.706–0.940) and mortality with sensitivity and specificity of 88.46% and 68.97% (NPV, 87.0; PPV, 71.9; 95% CI, 0.749–0.951). The PAS score could predict the length of ICU stay with sensitivity and specificity of 70.21% and 87.50, respectively (NPV, 33.3; PPV, 97.1; 95% CI, 0.605–0.906).
Conclusions
The standard FEES protocol using PAS score is a useful tool to assess aspiration in acute stroke patients and could be used to predict length of ICU stay and mortality.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Aspiration Pneumonia
    Di Pan, Samuel Chung, Erik Nielsen, Michael S. Niederman
    Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.2024; 45(02): 237.     CrossRef
  • The use of videofluoroscopy (VFS) and fibreoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) in the investigation of oropharyngeal dysphagia in stroke patients: A narrative review
    K. Helliwell, V.J. Hughes, C.M. Bennion, A. Manning-Stanley
    Radiography.2023; 29(2): 284.     CrossRef
Infection
Comparison of critically ill COVID-19 and influenza patients with acute respiratory failure
Mehmet Yildirim, Burcin Halacli, Mehmet Yasir Pektezel, Berrin Er, Ismail Tuna Geldigitti, Gulay Tok, Ebru Ortac Ersoy, Arzu Topeli
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(2):168-176.   Published online March 11, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2021.00920
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  • 3 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is one of the biggest pandemic causing acute respiratory failure (ARF) in the last century. Seasonal influenza carries high mortality, as well. The aim of this study was to compare features and outcomes of critically-ill COVID-19 and influenza patients with ARF.
Methods
Patients with COVID-19 and influenza admitted to intensive care unit with ARF were retrospectively analyzed.
Results
Fifty-four COVID-19 and 55 influenza patients with ARF were studied. Patients with COVID-19 had 32% of hospital mortality, while those with influenza had 47% (P=0.09). Patients with influenza had higher Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group, Clinical Frailty Scale, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II and admission Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores than COVID-19 patients (P<0.01). Secondary bacterial infection, admission acute kidney injury, procalcitonin level above 0.2 ng/ml were the independent factors distinguishing influenza from COVID-19 while prone positioning differentiated COVID-19 from influenza. Invasive mechanical ventilation (odds ratio [OR], 42.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 9.45–187.97), admission SOFA score more than 4 (OR, 5.92; 95% CI, 1.85–18.92), malignancy (OR, 4.95; 95% CI, 1.13–21.60), and age more than 65 years (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 0.99–11.03) were found to be independent risk factors for hospital mortality.
Conclusions
There were few differences in clinical features of critically-ill COVID-19 and influenza patients. Influenza cases had worse performance status and disease severity. There was no significant difference in hospital mortality rates between COVID-19 and influenza patients.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Comparison of Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes in Intensive Care Units Between Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and Patients with Influenza: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Zhuan Zhong, Xin Wang, Jia Guo, Xingzhao Li, Yingying Han
    Journal of Intensive Care Medicine.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Acute kidney injury in patients with COVID-19 compared to those with influenza: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Chiu-Ying Hsiao, Heng-Chih Pan, Vin-Cent Wu, Ching-Chun Su, Tzu-Hsuan Yeh, Min-Hsiang Chuang, Kuan-Chieh Tu, Hsien-Yi Wang, Wei-Chih Kan, Chun-Chi Yang, Jui-Yi Chen
    Frontiers in Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Comparison of Clinical Features and Outcomes between SARS-CoV-2 and Non-SARS-CoV-2 Respiratory Viruses Associated Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Retrospective Analysis
    Manbong Heo, Jong Hwan Jeong, Sunmi Ju, Seung Jun Lee, Yi Yeong Jeong, Jong Deog Lee, Jung-Wan Yoo
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2022; 11(8): 2246.     CrossRef
Pulmonary
Under or overpressure: an audit of endotracheal cuff pressure monitoring at the tertiary care center
Biju Viswambharan, Manjini Jeyaram Kumari, Gopala Krishnan, Lakshmi Ramamoorthy
Acute Crit Care. 2021;36(4):374-379.   Published online November 26, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2021.00024
  • 5,222 View
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  • 2 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Mechanical ventilation is a lifesaving intervention for critically ill patients but can produce the major complication of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Inappropriately inflated endotracheal tubes cause potential harm due to high or low pressure; this can be prevented through monitoring protocols.
Methods
A cross-sectional study of 348 cuff pressure readings was performed with intubated and mechanically ventilated patients to evaluate the exact proportion of patients in intensive care units (ICUs) where the cuff pressure is optimal and to identify the ICUs where device-based monitoring is available to produce a lower proportion of sub-optimal cuff pressure cases. Every three days, cuff pressure was assessed with a handheld cuff pressure manometer. The corresponding VAP rates of those ICUs were obtained from the hospital infection control department.
Results
Cuff pressure of 40.2% was the lower cutoff for the high category, that of optimal was 35.3%, and the highest cutoff of sub-optimal was 24.4%. This study also showed ICUs that had cuff pressure monitoring devices and protocols. Active measurement protocols had a higher proportion of optimal cuff pressure (58.5%) and a lower proportion of sub-optimal and high cuff pressure (19.5% and 22.0%) compared to ICUs with no device-based monitoring protocols. Furthermore, the VAP rate of ICUs exhibited a weak positive correlation with sub-optimal cuff pressure.
Conclusions
Device-based cuff pressure monitoring is essential in maintaining adequate cuff pressure but often is inadequate, resulting in high readings. Therefore, this study suggests that device-based cuff pressure monitoring be practiced.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Pressure changes in the endotracheal tube cuff in otorhinolaryngologic surgery: a prospective observational study
    Sujung Park, Young In Kwon, Hyun Joo Kim
    Frontiers in Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Correlación entre la presión del manguito del tubo endotraqueal y los síntomas laringotraqueales en postoperatorio
    Wedley Peñaloza, Reyes Cruz Manuel Reyes, Evelin Núñez Wong
    Revista Gaceta Médica JBG.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Efficacy of using an intravenous catheter to repair damaged expansion lines of endotracheal tubes and laryngeal masks
    Tingting Wang, Jiang Wang, Yao Lu, Xuesheng Liu, Shangui Chen
    BMC Anesthesiology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Nursing
Effect of modified care bundle for prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically-ill neurosurgical patients
Suphannee Triamvisit, Wassana Wongprasert, Chalermwoot Puttima, Matchima Na Chiangmai, Nawaphan Thienjindakul, Laksika Rodkul, Chumpon Jetjumnong
Acute Crit Care. 2021;36(4):294-299.   Published online November 23, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2021.00983
  • 8,014 View
  • 412 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Care bundles for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) have been shown to minimize the rate of VAP in critically ill patients. Standard care bundles may need to be modified in resource-constrained situations. The goal of this study was to see if our modified VAP-care bundles lowered the risk of VAP in neurosurgical patients.
Methods
A prospective cohort study was conducted in mechanically ventilated neurosurgical patients. The VAP bundle was adjusted in the cohort group by increasing the frequency of intermittent endotracheal tube cuff pressure monitoring to six times a day while reducing oral care with 0.12% chlorhexidine to three times a day. The rate of VAP was compared to the historical control group.
Results
A total of 146 and 145 patients were enrolled in control and cohort groups, respectively. The mean age of patients was 52±16 years in both groups (P=0.803). The admission Glasgow coma scores were 7.79±2.67 and 7.80±2.77 in control and cohort group, respectively (P=0.969). VAP was found in nine patients in control group but only one patient in cohort group. The occurrence rate of VAP was significantly reduced in cohort group compared to control group (0.88/1,000 vs. 6.84/1,000 ventilator days, P=0.036).
Conclusions
The modified VAP bundle is effective in lowering the VAP rate in critically ill neurosurgical patients. It requires low budget and manpower and can be employed in resource-constrained settings.
Pulmonary
Development of a prognostic scoring system in patients with pneumonia requiring ventilator care for more than 4 days: a single-center observational study
Yeseul Oh, Yewon Kang, Kwangha Lee
Acute Crit Care. 2021;36(1):46-53.   Published online February 17, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2020.00787
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
The aim of the present study was to develop a prognostic model using demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and clinical variables measured on day 4 of mechanical ventilation (MV) for patients with prolonged acute mechanical ventilation (PAMV; MV for >96 hours).
Methods
Data from 437 patients (70.9% male; median age, 68 years) were obtained over a period of 9 years. All patients were diagnosed with pneumonia. Binary logistic regression identified factors predicting mortality at 90 days after the start of MV. A PAMV prognosis score was calculating ß-coefficient values and assigning points to variables.
Results
The overall 90-day mortality rate was 47.1%. Five factors (age ≥65 years, body mass index <18.5 kg/m2, hemato-oncologic diseases as comorbidities, requirement for vasopressors on day 4 of MV and requirement for neuromuscular blocking agents on day 4 of MV) were identified as prognostic indicators. Each factor was valued as +1 point, and used to develop a PAMV prognosis score. This score showed acceptable discrimination (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.695 for mortality, 95% confidence interval 0.650–0.738, p<0.001), and calibration (Hosmer–Lemeshow chi-square=6.331, with df 7 and p=0.502). The cutoff value for predicting mortality based on the maximum Youden index was ≤2 (sensitivity, 87.5%; specificity, 41.3%). For patients with PAMV scores ≤1, 2, 3 and ≥4, the 90-day mortality rates were 29.2%, 45.7%, 67.9%, and 90.9%, respectively (P<0.001).
Conclusions
Our study developed a PAMV prognosis score for predicting 90-day mortality. Further research is needed to validate the utility of this score.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Ability of the modified NUTRIC score to predict mortality in patients requiring short-term versus prolonged acute mechanical ventilation: a retrospective cohort study
    Wanho Yoo, Hyojin Jang, Hayoung Seong, Saerom Kim, Soo Han Kim, Eun-Jung Jo, Jung Seop Eom, Kwangha Lee
    Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association between mechanical power and intensive care unit mortality in Korean patients under pressure-controlled ventilation
    Jae Kyeom Sim, Sang-Min Lee, Hyung Koo Kang, Kyung Chan Kim, Young Sam Kim, Yun Seong Kim, Won-Yeon Lee, Sunghoon Park, So Young Park, Ju-Hee Park, Yun Su Sim, Kwangha Lee, Yeon Joo Lee, Jin Hwa Lee, Heung Bum Lee, Chae-Man Lim, Won-Il Choi, Ji Young Hong
    Acute and Critical Care.2024; 39(1): 91.     CrossRef
Case Report
Pulmonary
Recurrent Aspiration Pneumonia due to Anterior Cervical Osteophyte
Jae Jun Lee, Ji Young Hong, Jun Han Jung, Jun Hyeok Yang, Jun-Young Sohn
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2017;32(1):74-78.   Published online February 28, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2016.00409
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AbstractAbstract PDF
A 74-year-old man presented with recurrent vomiting and aspiration pneumonia in the left lower lobe. He entered the intensive care unit to manage the pneumonia and septic shock. Although a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube was implanted for recurrent vomiting, vomiting and aspiration recurred frequently during admission. Subsequently, he complained of neck pain when in an upright position. A videofluoroscopic swallowing study showed compression of the esophagus by cervical osteophytes and tracheal aspiration caused by an abnormality at the laryngeal inlet. Cervical spine X-rays and computed tomography showed anterior cervical osteophytes at the C3-6 levels. Surgical decompression was scheduled, but was cancelled due to his frailty. Unfortunately, further recurrent vomiting and aspiration resulted in respiratory arrest leading to hypoxic brain damage and death. Physicians should consider cervical spine disease, such as diffuse skeletal hyperostosis as an uncommon cause of recurrent aspiration pneumonia.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis of the cervical spine causing dysphagia and airway obstruction: an updated systematic review
    Netanja I. Harlianto, Jonneke S. Kuperus, Firdaus A.A. Mohamed Hoesein, Pim A. de Jong, Jacob A. de Ru, F. Cumhur Öner, Jorrit-Jan Verlaan
    The Spine Journal.2022; 22(9): 1490.     CrossRef
  • An unusual presentation of thoracic diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS)
    Suthipas Pongmanee, Borvornsake Rojdumrongrattana, Noparoot Kritworakarn, Peem Sarasombath, Wongthawat Liawrungrueang
    International Journal of Surgery Case Reports.2022; 93: 106993.     CrossRef
Original Article
Infection
High-dose Sulbactam Treatment for Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Caused by Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii
In Beom Jeong, Moon Jun Na, Ji Woong Son, Do Yeon Jo, Sun Jung Kwon
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2016;31(4):308-316.   Published online November 30, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2015.00703
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Several antibiotics can be used to treat ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB-VAP) including high-dose sulbactam. However, the effectiveness of high-dose sulbactam therapy is not well known. We report our experience with high-dose sulbactam for treatment of CRAB-VAP.
Methods
Medical records of patients with CRAB-VAP who were given high-dose sulbactam between May 2013 and June 2015 were reviewed.
Results
Fifty-eight patients with CRAB-VAP were treated with high-dose sulbactam. The mean age was 72.0 ± 15.2 years, and the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score was 15.1 ± 5.10 at the time of CRAB-VAP diagnosis. Early clinical improvement was observed in 65.5% of patients, and 30-day mortality was 29.3%. Early clinical failure (odds ratio [OR]: 8.720, confidence interval [CI]: 1.346-56.484; p = 0.023) and APACHE II score ≥ 14 at CRAB-VAP diagnosis (OR: 10.934, CI: 1.047-114.148; p = 0.046) were associated with 30-day mortality.
Conclusions
High-dose sulbactam therapy may be effective for the treatment of CRAB-VAP. However, early clinical failure was observed in 35% of patients and was associated with poor outcome.

Citations

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    Antibiotics.2022; 11(8): 1112.     CrossRef
  • Meropenem/colistin versus meropenem/ampicillin–sulbactam in the treatment of carbapenem-resistant pneumonia
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Case Report
Pulmonary/Thoracic Surgery
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Therapy for Aspiration Pneumonia in a Patient following Left Pneumonectomy for Lung Cancer
Jangwhan Jo, Yang Gi Ryu
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2016;31(2):156-161.   Published online May 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2016.31.2.156
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AbstractAbstract PDF
A patient had undergone left pneumonectomy for lung cancer and had an increased risk of fatal complications such as pneumonia, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The treatment effects of veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) for ARDS of postpneumonectomy patient are uncertain. A 74-year-old man with one lung experienced aspiration pneumonia while swallowing pills after the operation, and his condition progressed to ARDS within a day. He was successfully treated with VV-ECMO support and intensive care unit care.

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  • The Future of Research on Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO)
    Ji Young Lee
    Korean Journal of Critical Care Medicine.2016; 31(2): 73.     CrossRef
Original Article
Neurology/Infection
Effect of Antibiotic Prophylaxis on Early-Onset Pneumonia in Cardiac Arrest Patients Treated with Therapeutic Hypothermia
Soo Jung Kim, Jung Kyu Lee, Deog Kyeom Kim, Jong Hwan Shin, Ki Jeong Hong, Eun Young Heo
Korean J Crit Care Med. 2016;31(1):17-24.   Published online February 29, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/kjccm.2016.31.1.17
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  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background:
Infectious complications frequently occur after cardiac arrest and may be even more frequent after therapeutic hypothermia. Pneumonia is the most common infectious complication associated with therapeutic hypothermia, and it is unclear whether prophylactic antibiotics administered during this intervention can decrease the development of early-onset pneumonia. We investigated the effect of antibiotic prophylaxis on the development of pneumonia in cardiac arrest patients treated with therapeutic hypothermia.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who were admitted for therapeutic hypothermia after resuscitation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest between January 2010 and July 2015. Patients who died within the first 72 hours or presented with pneumonia at the time of admission were excluded. Early-onset pneumonia was defined as pneumonia that developed within 5 days of admission. Prophylactic antibiotic therapy was defined as the administration of any parenteral antibiotics within the first 24 hours without any evidence of infection.
Results
Of the 128 patients admitted after cardiac arrest, 68 were analyzed and 48 (70.6%) were treated with prophylactic antibiotics within 24 hours. The frequency of early-onset pneumonia was not significantly different between the prophylactic antibiotic group and the control group (29.2% vs 30.0%, respectively, p = 0.945). The most commonly used antibiotic was third-generation cephalosporin, and the class of prophylactic antibiotics did not influence early-onset pneumonia.
Conclusion
Antibiotic prophylaxis in cardiac arrest patients treated with therapeutic hypothermia did not reduce the frequency of pneumonia.

Citations

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  • Hypothermia as a potential remedy for canine and feline acute spinal cord injury: a review
    Igor Šulla, Slavomír Horňák, Vladimír Balik
    Acta Veterinaria Brno.2022; 91(2): 189.     CrossRef
  • Prophylactic antibiotic use following cardiac arrest: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Keith Couper, Ryan Laloo, Richard Field, Gavin D. Perkins, Matthew Thomas, Joyce Yeung
    Resuscitation.2019; 141: 166.     CrossRef
  • A review of novel trends in management of canine spinal cord injury
    Igor Šulla, Slavomír Horňák, Valent Ledecký, Vladimír Balik
    Acta Veterinaria Brno.2019; 88(2): 207.     CrossRef
  • Management of post-cardiac arrest syndrome
    Youngjoon Kang
    Acute and Critical Care.2019; 34(3): 173.     CrossRef

ACC : Acute and Critical Care