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Guideline
Pulmonary
Liberation from mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients: Korean Society of Critical Care Medicine Clinical Practice Guidelines
Tae Sun Ha, Dong Kyu Oh, Hak-Jae Lee, Youjin Chang, In Seok Jeong, Yun Su Sim, Suk-Kyung Hong, Sunghoon Park, Gee Young Suh, So Young Park
Acute Crit Care. 2024;39(1):1-23.   Published online February 28, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2024.00052
  • 3,371 View
  • 611 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
Successful liberation from mechanical ventilation is one of the most crucial processes in critical care because it is the first step by which a respiratory failure patient begins to transition out of the intensive care unit and return to their own life. Therefore, when devising appropriate strategies for removing mechanical ventilation, it is essential to consider not only the individual experiences of healthcare professionals, but also scientific and systematic approaches. Recently, numerous studies have investigated methods and tools for identifying when mechanically ventilated patients are ready to breathe on their own. The Korean Society of Critical Care Medicine therefore provides these recommendations to clinicians about liberation from the ventilator. Methods: Meta-analyses and comprehensive syntheses were used to thoroughly review, compile, and summarize the complete body of relevant evidence. All studies were meticulously assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) method, and the outcomes were presented succinctly as evidence profiles. Those evidence syntheses were discussed by a multidisciplinary committee of experts in mechanical ventilation, who then developed and approved recommendations. Results: Recommendations for nine PICO (population, intervention, comparator, and outcome) questions about ventilator liberation are presented in this document. This guideline includes seven conditional recommendations, one expert consensus recommendation, and one conditional deferred recommendation. Conclusions: We developed these clinical guidelines for mechanical ventilation liberation to provide meaningful recommendations. These guidelines reflect the best treatment for patients seeking liberation from mechanical ventilation.
Review Articles
Meta-analysis
The impact of ketamine on outcomes in critically ill patients: a systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of randomized controlled trials
Yerkin Abdildin, Karina Tapinova, Assel Nemerenova, Dmitriy Viderman
Acute Crit Care. 2024;39(1):34-46.   Published online February 28, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.00829
  • 1,944 View
  • 162 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
This meta-analysis aims to evaluate the effects of ketamine in critically ill intensive care unit (ICU) patients.
Methods
We searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in PubMed, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library; the search was performed initially in January but was repeated in December of 2023. We focused on ICU patients of any age. We included studies that compared ketamine with other traditional agents used in the ICU. We synthesized evidence using RevMan v5.4 and presented the results as forest plots. We also used trial sequential analysis (TSA) software v. 0.9.5.10 Beta and presented results as TSA plots. For synthesizing results, we used a random-effects model and reported differences in outcomes of two groups in terms of mean difference (MD), standardized MD, and risk ratio with 95% confidence interval. We assessed the risk of bias using the Cochrane RoB tool for RCTs. Our outcomes were mortality, pain, opioid and midazolam requirements, delirium rates, and ICU length of stay.
Results
Twelve RCTs involving 805 ICU patients (ketamine group, n=398; control group, n=407) were included in the meta-analysis. The ketamine group was not superior to the control group in terms of mortality (in five studies with 318 patients), pain (two studies with 129 patients), mean and cumulative opioid consumption (six studies with 494 patients), midazolam consumption (six studies with 304 patients), and ICU length of stay (three studies with 270 patients). However, the model favored the ketamine group over the control group in delirium rate (four studies with 358 patients). This result is significant in terms of conventional boundaries (alpha=5%) but is not robust in sequential analysis. The applicability of the findings is limited by the small number of patients pooled for each outcome.
Conclusions
Our meta-analysis did not demonstrate differences between ketamine and control groups regarding any outcome except delirium rate, where the model favored the ketamine group over the control group. However, this result is not robust as sensitivity analysis and trial sequential analysis suggest that more RCTs should be conducted in the future.
Surgery
Early detection and assessment of intensive care unit-acquired weakness: a comprehensive review
Hanan Elkalawy, Pavan Sekhar, Wael Abosena
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(4):409-424.   Published online November 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2023.00703
  • 2,197 View
  • 225 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICU-AW) is a serious complication in critically ill patients. Therefore, timely and accurate diagnosis and monitoring of ICU-AW are crucial for effectively preventing its associated morbidity and mortality. This article provides a comprehensive review of ICU-AW, focusing on the different methods used for its diagnosis and monitoring. Additionally, it highlights the role of bedside ultrasound in muscle assessment and early detection of ICU-AW. Furthermore, the article explores potential strategies for preventing ICU-AW. Healthcare providers who manage critically ill patients utilize diagnostic approaches such as physical exams, imaging, and assessment tools to identify ICU-AW. However, each method has its own limitations. The diagnosis of ICU-AW needs improvement due to the lack of a consensus on the appropriate approach for its detection. Nevertheless, bedside ultrasound has proven to be the most reliable and cost-effective tool for muscle assessment in the ICU. Combining the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score assessment, and ultrasound can be a convenient approach for the early detection of ICU-AW. This approach can facilitate timely intervention and prevent catastrophic consequences. However, further studies are needed to strengthen the evidence.
Original Articles
Gastroenterology
The diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography over manual aspiration for gastric reserve volume estimation in critically ill patients
Rahul Sharma, Ravi Kant Dogra, Jyoti Pathania, Arti Sharma
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(1):134-141.   Published online February 22, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00955
  • 1,770 View
  • 107 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Although gastric reserve volume (GRV) is a surrogate marker of gastrointestinal dysfunction and feeding intolerance, there is ambiguity in its estimation due to problems associated with its measurement. Introduction of point-of-care ultrasound as a tool for anesthetists kindled interest in its use for GRV estimation. Methods: In this prospective observational study, we recruited 57 critically ill patients and analyzed 586 samples of GRV obtained by both ultrasonography (USG) and manual aspiration. Results: The analysis showed that USG-guided GRV was significantly correlated (r=0.788, P<0.001) and in positive agreement with manual aspiration based on Bland-Altman plot, with a mean difference of 8.50±14.84 (95% confidence interval, 7.389–9.798). The upper and lower limits of agreement were 37.7 and –20.5, respectively, within the ±1.96 standard deviation (P<0.001). The respective sensitivity and positive predictive value, specificity and negative predictive value, and area under the curve of USG for feeding intolerance were 66.67%, 98.15%, and 0.82%, with 96.49% diagnostic accuracy. Conclusions: Ultrasonographic estimation of GRV was positively, significantly correlated and in agreement with the manual aspiration method and estimated feeding intolerance earlier. Routine use of gastric USG could avoid clinical situations where feeding status is unclear and there is high risk of aspiration and could become a standard practice of critical care.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Gastrointestinal function in critically ill patients
    Annika Reintam Blaser, Kaspar F. Bachmann, Adam M. Deane
    Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care.2023; 26(5): 463.     CrossRef
Liver
Alcohol use disorder in the intensive care unit a highly morbid condition, but chemical dependency discussion improves outcomes
Kristin Colling, Alexandra K. Kraft, Melissa L. Harry
Acute Crit Care. 2023;38(1):122-133.   Published online January 10, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00584
  • 2,427 View
  • 88 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Alcohol use disorders (AUD) are common in patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) and increase the risk for worse outcomes. In this study, we describe factors associated with patient mortality after ICU admission and the effect of chemical dependency (CD) counseling on outcomes in the year following ICU admission. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patient demographics, hospital data, and documentation of CD counseling by medical providers for all ICU patients with AUD admitted to our institution between January 2017 and March 2019. Primary outcomes were in-hospital and 1-year mortality. Results: Of the 527 patients with AUD requiring ICU care, median age was 56 years (range, 18–86). Both in-hospital (12%) and 1-year mortality rates (27%) were high. Rural patients, comorbidities, older age, need for mechanical ventilation, and complications were associated with increased risk of in-hospital and 1-year mortality. CD counseling was documented for 73% of patients, and 50% of these patients accepted alcohol treatment or resources prior to discharge. CD evaluation and acceptance was associated with a significantly decreased rate of readmission for liver or alcohol-related issues (36% vs. 58%; odds ratio [OR], 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27–0.61) and 1-year mortality (7% vs. 19.5%; OR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.16–0.64). CD evaluation alone, regardless of patient acceptance, was associated with a significantly decreased 1-year post-discharge mortality rate (12% vs. 23%; OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.25–0.77). Conclusions: ICU patients with AUD had high in-hospital and 1-year mortality. CD evaluation, regardless of patient acceptance, was associated with a significant decrease in 1-year mortality

Citations

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  • Identifying excessive chronic alcohol use with phosphatidylethanol in patients with suspected severe injury-results from the IDART study
    Benedicte M Jørgenrud, Camilla C Bråthen, Jo Steinson Stenehjem, Thomas Kristiansen, Leiv Arne Rosseland, Stig Tore Bogstrand
    Alcohol and Alcoholism.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Nutrition
Effect of a nutritional support protocol on enteral nutrition and clinical outcomes of critically ill patients: a retrospective cohort study
Heemoon Park, Sung Yoon Lim, Sebin Kim, Hyung-Sook Kim, Soyeon Kim, Ho Il Yoon, Young-Jae Cho
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(3):382-390.   Published online July 19, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2022.00220
  • 3,324 View
  • 248 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
Enteral nutrition (EN) supply within 48 hours after intensive care unit (ICU) admission improves clinical outcomes. The “new ICU evaluation & development of nutritional support protocol (NICE-NST)” was introduced in an ICU of tertiary academic hospital. This study showed that early EN through protocolized nutritional support would supply more nutrition to improve clinical outcomes.
Methods
This study screened 170 patients and 62 patients were finally enrolled; patients who were supplied nutrition without the protocol were classified as the control group (n=40), while those who were supplied according to the protocol were classified as the test group (n=22).
Results
In the test group, EN started significantly earlier (3.7±0.4 days vs. 2.4±0.5 days, P=0.010). EN calorie (4.0±1.0 kcal/kg vs. 6.7±0.9 kcal/kg, P=0.006) and protein (0.17±0.04 g/kg vs. 0.32±0.04 g/kg, P=0.002) supplied were significantly higher in the test group. Although EN was supplied through continuous feeding in the test group, there was no difference in complications such as feeding hold due to excessive gastric residual volume or vomit, and hyper- or hypo-glycemia between the two groups. Hospital mortality was significantly lower in the group that started EN within 1.5 days (42.9% vs. 11.8%, P=0.018). The proportion of patients who started EN within 1.5 days was higher in the test group (40.9% vs. 17.5%, P=0.044).
Conclusions
The NICE-NST may improve EN supply and mortality of critically ill patients without increasing complications.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Nutritional support for patients with abdominal surgical pathology: the view of a surgeon and an anesthesiologist — opponents or allies?
    Natalya P. Shen, Svetlana Yu. Mukhacheva
    Clinical nutrition and metabolism.2023; 3(4): 181.     CrossRef
  • Provision of Enteral Nutrition in the Surgical Intensive Care Unit: A Multicenter Prospective Observational Study
    Chan-Hee Park, Hak-Jae Lee, Suk-Kyung Hong, Yang-Hee Jun, Jeong-Woo Lee, Nak-Jun Choi, Kyu-Hyouck Kyoung
    Annals of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.2022; 14(2): 66.     CrossRef
Neurology
Muscle Growth and Anabolism in Intensive Care Survivors (GAINS) trial: a pilot randomised controlled trial
Matthew H Anstey, Rashmi Rauniyar, Ethan Fitzclarence, Natalie Tran, Emma Osnain, Bianca Mammana, Angela Jacques, Robert N Palmer, Andrew Chapman, Bradley Wibrow
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(3):295-302.   Published online June 27, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2021.01767
  • 4,534 View
  • 314 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
To explore the feasibility, safety, and potential benefits of administration of the anabolic steroid nandrolone to patients in the recovery phase from critical illness weakness.
Methods
In this phase II, double blind, randomized, controlled trial, adult critically ill patients admitted to one of two tertiary Intensive Care Units in Western Australia for longer than 7 days with significant weakness were enrolled. Patients received nandrolone (200 mg males, 100 mg females) intramuscularly or placebo weekly for up to 3 weeks in addition to standard care. The primary outcome measures were improvement in grip strength, Medical Research Council muscle strength sum score, and functional activity level (Chelsea critical care assessment tool [CPAx]).
Results
A total of 22 patients was enrolled between September 2017 and May 2019. No significant adverse events were detected. Median grip strength change was non-significantly greater in the nandrolone group (8.5 vs. 13.0, P=0.185), while hospital length of stay (36 vs. 26 days, P=0.023) and duration of mechanical ventilation (377 vs. 168, P=0.032) were lower. The discharge CPAx and intensive care unit mobility scores were higher in the nandrolone group, although there was no difference in the change in CPAx score (17.0 vs. 17.7, P=0.865). There were no changes in ultrasound-detected muscle thickness between the two groups.
Conclusions
In patients with prolonged critical illness, nandrolone appears to be safe. However, a larger study, potentially combined with resistance exercise, is needed to definitively address the potential benefits of nandrolone.
Infection
Nosocomial meningitis in intensive care: a 10-year retrospective study and literature review
Sofia R. Valdoleiros, Cristina Torrão, Laura S. Freitas, Diana Mano, Celina Gonçalves, Carla Teixeira
Acute Crit Care. 2022;37(1):61-70.   Published online January 26, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2021.01151
  • 5,989 View
  • 270 Download
  • 8 Web of Science
  • 9 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
Nosocomial meningitis is a medical emergency that requires early diagnosis, prompt initiation of therapy, and frequent admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in adult patients diagnosed with nosocomial meningitis who required admission to the ICU between April 2010 and March 2020. Meningitis/ventriculitis and intracranial infection were defined according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines. Results: An incidence of 0.75% of nosocomial meningitis was observed among 70 patients. The mean patient age was 59 years and 34% were ≥65 years. Twenty-two percent of patients were in an immunocompromised state. A clear predisposing factor for nosocomial meningitis (traumatic brain injury, basal skull fracture, brain hemorrhage, central nervous system [CNS] invasive procedure or device) was present in 93% of patients. Fever was the most frequent clinical feature. A microbiological agent was identified in 30% of cases, of which 27% were bacteria, with a predominance of Gram-negative over Gram-positive. Complications developed in 47% of cases, 24% of patients were discharged with a Glasgow coma scale <14, and 37% died. There were no clear clinical predictors of complications. Advanced age (≥65 years old) and the presence of complications were associated with higher hospital mortality. Conclusions: Nosocomial meningitis in critical care has a low incidence rate but high mortality and morbidity. In critical care patients with CNS-related risk factors, a high level of suspicion for meningitis is warranted, but diagnosis can be hindered by several confounding factors.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Procalcitonin As Diagnostic Tool for CNS Infections—Overall, Not Good Enough (Yet?)*
    Michael A. Pizzi, Katharina M. Busl
    Critical Care Medicine.2024; 52(1): 163.     CrossRef
  • A retrospective analysis of 20,178 adult neurological infection admissions to United Kingdom critical care units from 2001 to 2020
    Joseph Donovan, Abena Glover, John Gregson, Andrew W. Hitchings, Emma C. Wall, Robert S. Heyderman
    BMC Infectious Diseases.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Clinical Characteristics, Treatment, and Outcomes of Veterans with Cerebrospinal Fluid Culture Positive for Gram-Negative Rod Bacteria: A Retrospective Analysis over 18 Years in 125 Veterans Health Administration Hospitals
    Shinya Hasegawa, Eiyu Matsumoto, Jennifer R. Carlson, Hiroyuki Suzuki
    Current Microbiology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Bacterial meningitis in adults: a retrospective study among 148 patients in an 8-year period in a university hospital, Finland
    Sakke Niemelä, Laura Lempinen, Eliisa Löyttyniemi, Jarmo Oksi, Jussi Jero
    BMC Infectious Diseases.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Bacterial meningitis in children with an abnormal craniocerebral structure
    Jiali Pan, Wei Xu, Wenliang Song, Tao Zhang
    Frontiers in Pediatrics.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Fieber in der Intensivmedizin
    Jan-Hendrik Naendrup, Boris Böll, Jorge Garcia Borrega
    Intensivmedizin up2date.2023; 19(01): 17.     CrossRef
  • Neurosurgical management of penetrating brain injury during World War I: A historical cohort
    Rayan Fawaz, Mathilde Schmitt, Philémon Robert, Nathan Beucler, Jean-Marc Delmas, Nicolas Desse, Aurore Sellier, Arnaud Dagain
    Neurochirurgie.2023; 69(3): 101439.     CrossRef
  • Etiology and Outcomes of Healthcare-Associated Meningitis and Ventriculitis—A Single Center Cohort Study
    Hana Panic, Branimir Gjurasin, Marija Santini, Marko Kutlesa, Neven Papic
    Infectious Disease Reports.2022; 14(3): 420.     CrossRef
  • Healthcare-associated central nervous system infections
    Mariachiara Ippolito, Antonino Giarratano, Andrea Cortegiani
    Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology.2022; 35(5): 549.     CrossRef
Ethics
Outcomes of critically ill patients according to the perception of intensivists on the appropriateness of intensive care unit admission
Youjin Chang, Kyoung Ran Kim, Jin Won Huh, Sang-Bum Hong, Younsuck Koh, Chae-Man Lim
Acute Crit Care. 2021;36(4):351-360.   Published online November 26, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2021.00283
  • 5,005 View
  • 136 Download
  • 4 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
It is important for intensivists to determine which patient may benefit from intensive care unit (ICU) admission. We aimed to assess the outcomes of patients perceived as non-beneficially or beneficially admitted to the ICU and evaluate whether their prognosis was consistent with the intensivists’ perception.
Methods
A prospective observational study was conducted on patients admitted to the medical ICU of a tertiary referral center between February and April 2014. The perceptions of four intensivists at admission (day 1) and on day 3 were investigated as non-beneficial admission, beneficial admission, or indeterminate state.
Results
A total of 210 patients were enrolled. On days 1 and 3, 22 (10%) and 23 (11%) patients were judged as having non-beneficial admission; 166 (79%) and 159 (79%), beneficial admission; and 22 (10%) and 21 (10%), indeterminate state, respectively. The ICU mortality rates of each group were 64%, 22%, and 57%, respectively; their 6-month mortality rates were 100%, 46%, and 81%, respectively. The perceptions of non-beneficial admission or indeterminate state were the significant predictors of ICU mortality (day 3, odds ratio [OR], 4.049; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.892–8.664; P<0.001) and 6-month mortality (day 1: OR, 4.983; 95% CI, 1.260–19.703; P=0.022; day 3: OR, 4.459; 95% CI, 1.162–17.121; P=0.029).
Conclusions
The outcomes of patients perceived as having non-beneficial admission were extremely poor. The intensivists’ perception was important in predicting patients’ outcomes and was more consistent with long-term prognosis than with immediate outcomes. The intensivists’ role can be reflected in limited ICU resource utilization.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Characteristics of critically ill patients with cancer associated with intensivist's perception of inappropriateness of ICU admission: A retrospective cohort study
    Carla Marchini Dias da Silva, Bruno Adler Maccagnan Pinheiro Besen, Antônio Paulo Nassar Jr
    Journal of Critical Care.2024; 79: 154468.     CrossRef
  • Characteristics, ICU Interventions, and Clinical Outcomes of Patients With Palliative Care Triggers in a Mixed Community-Based Intensive Care Unit
    Michele M. Iguina, Aunie M. Danyalian, Ilko Luque, Umair Shaikh, Sanaz B. Kashan, Dionne Morgan, Daniel Heller, Mauricio Danckers
    Journal of Palliative Care.2023; 38(2): 126.     CrossRef
  • Association of appropriateness for ICU admission with resource use, organ support and long-term survival in critically ill cancer patients
    Carla Marchini Dias Silva, Janaina Naiara Germano, Anna Karolyne de Araujo Costa, Giovanna Alves Gennari, Pedro Caruso, Antonio Paulo Nassar Jr
    Internal and Emergency Medicine.2023; 18(4): 1191.     CrossRef
  • Can the intensivists predict the outcomes of critically ill patients on the appropriateness of intensive care unit admission for limited intensive care unit resources ?
    SeungYong Park
    Acute and Critical Care.2021; 36(4): 388.     CrossRef
Review Article
Epidemiology
Influence of sarcopenia focused on critically ill patients
Belgin Akan
Acute Crit Care. 2021;36(1):15-21.   Published online February 2, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2020.00745
  • 6,717 View
  • 273 Download
  • 9 Web of Science
  • 15 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
A systemic review was performed to evaluate the epidemiological, pathophysiological, and clinical features of sarcopenia, the relationship of sarcopenia with critical illness and its impact on mortality, and diagnostic methods and treatment modalities. Generally, in the presence of critical illness, sarcopenia is not included in the treatment approach strategies. An intensivist should be aware that sarcopenia may be present in critically ill patients. Although the main modalities against sarcopenia are early mobilization and nutritional support, they can only prevent its development and may have positive effects on prognosis rather than treating the existing sarcopenia.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Muscle wasting in ICU-patients with COVID-19 - Descriptive analysis and risk factors identification
    Alan Garcia-Grimaldo, Nadia Carolina Rodríguez-Moguel, Martín Armando Ríos-Ayala, Carmen Margarita Hernández-Cárdenas, Lya Pensado-Piedra, Iván Armando Osuna-Padilla
    Medicina Intensiva (English Edition).2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Dual-Energy CT muscle fat fraction as a new imaging biomarker of body composition and survival predictor in critically ill patients
    Jennifer Erley, Kevin Roedl, Ann-Kathrin Ozga, Geraldine de Heer, Niklas Schubert, Julia Breckow, Christoph Burdelski, Enver Tahir, Stefan Kluge, Tobias B. Huber, Jin Yamamura, Gerhard Adam, Isabel Molwitz
    European Radiology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Antoine Herault, Emilie Lévêque, Simon Draye-Carbonnier, Pierre Decazes, Alexandra Zduniak, Romain Modzelewski, Julie Libraire, Najate Achamrah, Anne-Lise Ménard, Pascal Lenain, Nathalie Contentin, Maximilien Grall, Stéphane Leprêtre, Emilie Lemasle, Hélè
    Clinical Nutrition ESPEN.2023; 55: 373.     CrossRef
  • Acute Changes in Body Muscle Mass and Fat Depletion in Hospitalized Young Trauma Patients: A Descriptive Retrospective Study
    Hassan Al-Thani, Bianca M. Wahlen, Ayman El-Menyar, Mohammad Asim, Lena Ribhi Nassar, Mohamed Nadeem Ahmed, Syed Nabir, Monira Mollazehi, Husham Abdelrahman
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  • The relationship between body mass index and mortality is not linear in patients requiring venovenous extracorporeal support
    Elwin Tham, Stuart Campbell, Heather Hayanga, Jeffrey Ammons, Wei Fang, Penny Sappington, Paul McCarthy, Alper Toker, Vinay Badhwar, J.W. Awori Hayanga
    The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Sanja Tomanović-Vujadinović
    Galenika Medical Journal.2023; 2(8): 25.     CrossRef
  • Low muscle mass in COVID-19 critically-ill patients: Prognostic significance and surrogate markers for assessment
    I.A. Osuna-Padilla, N.C. Rodríguez-Moguel, S. Rodríguez-Llamazares, C.E. Orsso, C.M. Prado, M.A. Ríos-Ayala, O. Villanueva-Camacho, A. Aguilar-Vargas, L.E. Pensado-Piedra, F. Juárez-Hernández, C.M. Hernández-Cárdenas
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  • A systematic review of the definitions and prevalence of feeding intolerance in critically ill adults
    Bethan Jenkins, Philip C. Calder, Luise V. Marino
    Clinical Nutrition ESPEN.2022; 49: 92.     CrossRef
  • The Diagnostic Value of Ultrasound of the Rectus Femoris for the diagnosis of Sarcopenia in adults: A systematic review
    I. Nies, L.L.G.C. Ackermans, M. Poeze, T.J. Blokhuis, Jan A. Ten Bosch
    Injury.2022; 53: S23.     CrossRef
  • Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump Placement in the Axillary Artery: Where are We?
    Gustavo André Boeing Boros, Claudia Yanet San Martin de Bernoche, Pedro Felipe Gomes Nicz
    ABC: Heart Failure & Cardiomyopathy.2022; 2(2): 209.     CrossRef
  • Current practice and barriers in the implementation of ultrasound-based assessment of muscle mass in Japan: A nationwide, web-based cross-sectional study
    Keishi Nawata, Nobuto Nakanishi, Shigeaki Inoue, Keibun Liu, Masafumi Nozoe, Yuko Ono, Isamu Yamada, Hajime Katsukawa, Joji Kotani, Supat Chupradit
    PLOS ONE.2022; 17(11): e0276855.     CrossRef
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    Bethan Jenkins, Philip C. Calder, Luise V. Marino
    Clinical Nutrition ESPEN.2022; 52: 331.     CrossRef
  • ICU Acquired Weakness in patients with respiratory failure
    Sergei A. Andreichenko, Mikhail V. Bychinin, Dmitriy I. Korshunov, Tatiana V. Klypa
    Journal of Clinical Practice.2021; 12(2): 5.     CrossRef
  • Predicting outcome in abdominal sepsis: putting the puzzle together
    Catherine S. Reid, Vanessa M. Banz, Joerg C. Schefold, Markus M. Luedi
    Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle.2021; 12(5): 1119.     CrossRef
  • Ultrasound assessment of muscle mass has potential to identify patients with low muscularity at intensive care unit admission: A retrospective study
    Yuta Arai, Nobuto Nakanishi, Yuko Ono, Shigeaki Inoue, Joji Kotani, Masafumi Harada, Jun Oto
    Clinical Nutrition ESPEN.2021; 45: 177.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Infection
Risk factors for intensive care unit admission and mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients
Ahmed Ayaz, Ainan Arshad, Hajra Malik, Haris Ali, Erfan Hussain, Bushra Jamil
Acute Crit Care. 2020;35(4):249-254.   Published online November 11, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2020.00381
  • 7,093 View
  • 220 Download
  • 19 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
This study investigated the clinical features and outcome of hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients admitted to our quaternary care hospital.
Methods
In this retrospective cohort study, we included all adult patients with COVID-19 infection admitted to a quaternary care hospital in Pakistan from March 1 to April 15, 2020. The extracted variables included demographics, comorbidities, presenting symptoms, laboratory tests and radiological findings during admission. Outcome measures included in-hospital mortality and length of stay.
Results
Sixty-six COVID-19 patients were hospitalized during the study period. Sixty-one percent were male and 39% female; mean age was 50.6±19.1 years. Fever and cough were the most common presenting symptoms. Serial chest X-rays showed bilateral pulmonary opacities in 33 (50%) patients. The overall mortality was 14% and mean length of stay was 8.4±8.9 days. Ten patients (15%) required intensive care unit (ICU) care during admission, of which six (9%) were intubated. Age ≥60 years, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, ICU admission, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio ≥3.3, and international normalized ratio ≥1.2 were associated with increased risk of mortality.
Conclusions
We found a mortality rate of 14% in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. COVID-19 cases are still increasing exponentially around the world and may overwhelm healthcare systems in many countries soon. Our findings can be used for early identification of patients who may require intensive care and aggressive management in order to improve outcomes.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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    Xiaofeng Wang, Shuo Li, Da Huo, Shilin Wang, Wenlong Wang, Hongxia He, Qian Zhang, Jiantao Li, Xu Wang
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Pulmonary
Clinical characteristics and outcomes of critically Ill patients with COVID-19 in Northeast Ohio: low mortality and length of stay
Francois Abi Fadel, Mohammed Al-Jaghbeer, Sany Kumar, Lori Griffiths, Xiaofeng Wang, Xiaozhen Han, Robert Burton
Acute Crit Care. 2020;35(4):242-248.   Published online October 12, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2020.00619
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Published coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) reports suggest higher mortality with increasing age and comorbidities. Our study describes the clinical characteristics and outcomes for all intensive care unit (ICU) patients admitted across the Cleveland Clinic enterprise, a 10-hospital health care system in Northeast Ohio, serving more than 2.7 million people.
Methods
We analyzed the quality data registry for clinical characteristics and outcomes of all COVID-19-confirmed ICU admissions. Differences in outcomes from other health care systems and published cohorts from other parts of the world were delineated.
Results
Across our health care system, 495 COVID-19 patients were admitted from March 15 to June 1, 2020. Mean patient age was 67.3 years, 206 (41.6%) were females, and 289 (58.4%) were males. Mean Acute Physiology Score was 45.3, and mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III score was 60.5. In total, 215 patients (43.3%) were intubated for a mean duration of 9.2 days. Mean ICU and hospital length of stay were 7.4 and 13.9 days, respectively, while mean ICU and hospital mortality rates were 18.4% and 23.8%.
Conclusions
Our health care system cohort is the fourth largest to be reported. Lower ICU and hospital mortality and length of stay were seen compared to most other published reports. Better preparedness and state-level control of the surge in COVID-19 infections are likely the reasons for these better outcomes. Future research is needed to further delineate differences in mortality and length of stay across health care systems and over time.

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Review Article
Pulmonary
Pulmonary and Physical Rehabilitation in Critically Ill Patients
Myung Hun Jang, Myung-Jun Shin, Yong Beom Shin
Acute Crit Care. 2019;34(1):1-13.   Published online February 28, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2019.00444
  • 20,718 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Some patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) because of an acute illness, complicated surgery, or multiple traumas develop muscle weakness affecting the limbs and respiratory muscles during acute care in the ICU. This condition is referred to as ICU-acquired weakness (ICUAW), and can be evoked by critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP), critical illness myopathy (CIM), or critical illness polyneuromyopathy (CIPNM). ICUAW is diagnosed using the Medical Research Council (MRC) sum score based on bedside manual muscle testing in cooperative patients. The MRC sum score is the sum of the strengths of the 12 regions on both sides of the upper and lower limbs. ICUAW is diagnosed when the MRC score is less than 48 points. However, some patients require electrodiagnostic studies, such as a nerve conduction study, electromyography, and direct muscle stimulation, to differentiate between CIP and CIM. Pulmonary rehabilitation in the ICU can be divided into modalities intended to remove retained airway secretions and exercise therapies intended to improve respiratory function. Physical rehabilitation, including early mobilization, positioning, and limb exercises, attenuates the weakness that occurs during critical care. To perform mobilization in mechanically ventilated patients, pretreatment by removing secretions is necessary. It is also important to increase the strength of respiratory muscles and to perform lung recruitment to improve mobilization in patients who are weaned from the ventilator. For these reasons, pulmonary rehabilitation is important in addition to physical therapy. Early recognition of CIP, CIM, and CIPNM and early rehabilitation in the ICU might improve patients’ functional recovery and outcomes.

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Original Articles
Basic science and research
Prognostic Implication of Adrenocortical Response during the Course of Critical Illness
Jin Hwa Song, Jung Hee Kim, Sang-Min Lee, Jinwoo Lee
Acute Crit Care. 2019;34(1):38-45.   Published online January 30, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2018.00339
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
Critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-cortisol dissociation are hormonal conditions frequently observed in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between ACTH-cortisol dissociation and clinical outcomes of critically ill patients. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 94 ICU patients who underwent two rapid cosyntropin tests during hospital admission and compared the clinical aspects of patients with and without ACTH-cortisol dissociation. ACTH-cortisol dissociation was defined as plasma ACTH and serum cortisol concentrations of <22 pmol/L and >600 nmol/L, respectively. Results: Dissociation was present in 30 of the 94 patients (31.9%). Patients with ACTH-cortisol dissociation in the initial test had significantly higher hospital mortality rate than those in the control group (55% vs. 25.7%, P=0.013) There was no difference in hospital mortality between patients classified as having CIRCI and those who were not. In multivariate adjusted Cox regression analysis, the mortality risk was higher in the group with ACTH-cortisol dissociation (hazard ratio, 2.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.34 to 6.63; P=0.007). Patients with dissociation in two consecutive stimulation tests showed the highest hospital mortality rate among groups classified according to stimulation test results (100% vs. 31.3%). Conclusions: The hospital mortality was higher in ICU patients diagnosed with ACTH-cortisol dissociation. It is clinically feasible to evaluate the presence of ACTH-cortisol dissociation by analyzing rapid ACTH stimulation test results in critically ill patients.

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Neurology
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Acute Crit Care. 2018;33(1):23-33.   Published online February 6, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4266/acc.2017.00584
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Delirium is common among intensive care unit (ICU) patients, so recent clinical guidelines recommended routine delirium monitoring in the ICU. But, its effect on the patient’s clinical outcome is still controversial. In particular, the effect of systems that inform the primary physician of the results of monitoring is largely unknown.
Methods
The delirium notification program using bedside signs and electronic chart notifications was applied to the pre-existing delirium monitoring protocol. Every patient was routinely evaluated for delirium, pain, and anxiety using validated tools. Clinical outcomes, including duration of delirium, ICU stay, and mortality were reviewed and compared for 3 months before and after the program implementation.
Results
There was no significant difference between the two periods of delirium, ICU stay, and mortality. However, anxiety, an important prognostic factor in the ICU survivor’s mental health, was significantly reduced and pain tended to decrease.
Conclusions
Increasing the physician’s awareness of the patient’s mental state by using a notification program could reduce the anxiety of ICU patients even though it may not reduce delirium. The results suggested that the method of delivering the results of monitoring was also an important factor in the success of the delirium monitoring program.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Adaptation and Validation of a Chart‐Based Delirium Detection Tool for the ICU (CHART‐DEL‐ICU)
    Karla D. Krewulak, Carmen Hiploylee, E. W. Ely, Henry T. Stelfox, Sharon K. Inouye, Kirsten M. Fiest
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.2021; 69(4): 1027.     CrossRef

ACC : Acute and Critical Care